Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and CollegesMachine readable text

Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges
Edited by: J. B. Greenough
G. L. Kittredge
A. A. Howard
Benj. L. D'Ooge

Perseus Documents Collection Table of Contents

   The Four Conjugations
   Forms of Conjugation



Funded by The Annenberg CPB/Project




Conjunctions, like prepositions (cf. 219), are closely related to adverbs, and are either petrified cases of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, or obscured phrases: as, quod, an old accusative; dum, probably an old accusative (cf. tum, cum); vr, an old neuter ablative of vrus; nihilminus, none the less; proinde, lit. forward from there. Most conjunctions are connected with pronominal adverbs, which cannot always be referred to their original case-forms.


Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or sentences. They are of two classes, Cordinate and Subordinate:


Cordinate, connecting cordinate or similar constructions (see 278. 2. a). These are:

1. Copulative or disjunctive, implying a connection or separation of thought as well as of words: as, et, and; aut, or; neque, nor.

2. Adversative, implying a connection of words, but a contrast in thought: as, sed, but.

3. Causal, introducing a cause or reason: as, nam, for.

4. Illative, denoting an inference: as, igitur, therefore.


Subordinate, connecting a subordinate or independent clause with that on which it depends (see 278. 2. b). These are:

1. Conditional, denoting a condition or hypothesis: as, s, if; nisi, unless.

2. Comparative, implying comparison as well as condition: as, ac s, as if.

3. Concessive, denoting a concession or admission: as, quamquam, although (lit. however much it may be true that, etc.).

4. Temporal: as, postquam, after.

5. Consecutive, expressing result: as, ut, so that.

6. Final, expressing purpose: as, ut, in order that; n, that not.

7. Causal, expressing cause: as, quia, because.


Conjunctions are more numerous and more accurately distinguished in Latin than in English. The following list includes the common conjunctions 153 and conjunctive phrases:


a. Copulative and Disjunctive

et, -que, atque (ac), and.

et ... et; et ... -que (atque); -que ... et; -que ... -que (poetical), both ... and.

etiam, quoque, neque nn (necnn), qun etiam, itidem (item), also.

cum ... tum; tum ... tum, both ... and; not only ... but also. [p. 138]

qu ... qu, on the one hand ... on the other hand.

modo ... modo, now ... now.

aut ... aut; vel ... vel (-ve), either ... or.

sve (seu) ... sve, whether ... or.

nec (neque) ... nec (neque); neque ... nec; nec ... neque (rare), neither ... nor.

et ... neque, both ... and not.

nec ... et; nec (neque) ... -que, neither (both not) ... and.

b. Adversative

sed, autem, vrum, vr, at, atqu, but.

tamen, attamen, sed tamen, vrum tamen, but yet, nevertheless.

nihilminus, none the less.

at vr, but in truth; enimvr, for in truth.

cterum, on the other hand, but.

c. Causal

nam, namque, enim, etenim, for.

qupropter, qur, quamobrem, qucirc, unde, wherefore, whence.

d. Illative

erg, igitur, itaque, ide, idcirc, inde, proinde, therefore, accordingly.


a. Conditional

s, if; sn, but if; nisi (n), unless, if not; quod s, but if.

modo, dum, dummodo, s modo, if only, provided.

dummodo n (dum n, modo n), provided only not.

b. Comparative

ut, ut, scut, just as; velut, as, so as; prout, praeut, ceu, like as, according as.

tamquam (tanquam), quasi, ut s, ac s, velut, velut, velut s, as if.

quam, atque (ac), as, than.

c. Concessive

ets, etiams, tamets, even if; quamquam (quanquam), although.

quamvs, quantumvs, quamlibet, quantumlibet, however much.

licet (properly a verb), ut, cum (quom), though, suppose, whereas.

d. Temporal

cum (quom), quand, when; ubi, ut, when, as; cum prmum, ut prmum, ubi prmum, simul, simul ac, simul atque, as soon as; postquam (postequam), after.

prius ... quam, ante ... quam, before; nn ante ... quam, not ... until.

dum, sque dum, dnec, quoad, until, as long as, while. [p. 139]

e. Consecutive and Final

ut (ut), qu, so that, in order that.

n, ut n, lest (that ... not, in order that not); nve (neu), that not, nor.

qun (after negatives), quminus, but that (so as to prevent), that not.

f. Causal

quia, quod, quoniam (quom-iam), quand, because.

cum (quom), since.

quandquidem, s quidem, quippe, ut pote, since indeed, inasmuch as.

proptere ... quod, for this reason ... that.

On the use of Conjunctions, see 323, 324.


Some Interjections are mere natural exclamations of feeling; others are derived from inflected parts of speech, e.g. the imperatives em, lo (probably for eme, take); age, come, etc. Names of deities occur in hercl, pol (from Pollux), etc. Many Latin interjections are borrowed from the Greek, as euge, euhoe, etc.

The following list comprises most of the Interjections in common use:

, n, ecce, ehem, papae, vh (of astonishment).

i, vae, voe, euhoe (of joy).

heu, heu, vae, alas (of sorrow).

heus, eho, ehodum, ho (of calling); st, hist.

ia, euge (of praise).

pr (of attestation): as, pr pudor, shame! [p. 140]



All formation of words is originally a process of composition. An element significant in itself is added to another significant element, and thus the meaning of the two is combined. No other combination is possible for the formation either of inflections or of stems. Thus, in fact, words (since roots and stems are significant elements, and so words) are first placed side by side, then brought under one accent, and finally felt as one word. The gradual process is seen in sea voyage, sea-nymph, seaside. But as all derivation, properly so called, appears as a combination of uninflected stems, every type of formation in use must antedate inflection. Hence words were not in strictness derived either from nouns or from verbs, but from stems which were neither, because they were in fact both; for the distinction between noun-stems and verb-stems had not yet been made.

After the development of Inflection, however, that one of several kindred words which seemed the simplest was regarded as the primitive form, and from this the other words of the group were thought to be derived. Such supposed processes of formation were then imitated, often erroneously, and in this way new modes of derivation arose. Thus new adjectives were formed from nouns, new nouns from adjectives, new adjectives from verbs, and new verbs from adjectives and nouns.

In course of time the real or apparent relations of many words became confused, so that nouns and adjectives once supposed to come from nouns were often assigned to verbs, and others once supposed to come from verbs were assigned to nouns.

Further, since the language was constantly changing, many words went out of use, and do not occur in the literature as we have it. Thus many Derivatives survive of which the Primitive is lost.

Finally, since all conscious word-formation is imitative, intermediate steps in derivation were sometimes omitted, and occasionally apparent Derivatives occur for which no proper Primitive ever existed.


Roots 154 are of two kinds:

1. Verbal, expressing ideas of action or condition (sensible phenomena).

2. Pronominal, expressing ideas of position and direction.

From verbal roots come all parts of speech except pronouns and certain particles derived from pronominal roots.

Stems are either identical with roots or derived from them. They are of two classes: (1) Noun-stems (including Adjective-stems) and (2) Verb-stems.

NOTE.Noun-stems and verb-stems were not originally different (see p. 163), and in the consciousness of the Romans were often confounded; but in general they were treated as distinct.

Words are formed by inflection: (1) from roots inflected as stems; (2) from derived stems (see 232). [p. 141]

A root used as a stem may appear

With a short vowel: as, duc-is (dux), DUC; nec-is (nex); i-s, i-d. So in verbs: as, es-t, fer-t (cf. 174. 2).

With a long vowel 155 : as, lc-is (lx), LUC; pc-is (px). So in verbs: dc-, -s for eis, from e, re; ftur from fr.

With reduplication: as, fur-fur, mar-mor, mur-mur. So in verbs: as, gi-gn (root GEN), si-st (root STA).


Derived Stems are formed from roots or from other stems by means of suffixes. These are:

1. Primary: added to the root, or (in later times by analogy) to verbstems.

2. Secondary: added to a noun-stem or an adjective-stem.

Both primary and secondary suffixes are for the most part pronominal roots ( 228. 2), but a few are of doubtful origin.

NOTE 1.The distinction between primary and secondary suffixes, not being original (see 227), is continually lost sight of in the development of a language. Suffixes once primary are used as secondary, and those once secondary are used as primary. Thus in hosticus (hosti + cus) the suffix -cus, originally ko- (see 234. 2.12) primary, as in paucus, has become secondary, and is thus regularly used to form derivatives; but in pudcus, aprcus, it is treated as primary again, because these words were really or apparently connected with verbs. So in English -able was borrowed as a primary suffix (tolerable, eatable), but also makes forms like clubbable, salable; -some is properly a secondary suffix, as in toilsome, lonesome, but makes also such words as meddlesome, venturesome.

NOTE 2.It is the stem of the word, not the nominative, that is formed by the derivative suffix. For convenience, however, the nominative will usually be given.

Primary Suffixes

The words in Latin formed immediately from the root by means of Primary Suffixes, are few. For

1. Inherited words so formed were mostly further developed by the addition of other suffixes, as we might make an adjective lone-ly-some-ish. meaning nothing more than lone, lonely, or lonesome.

2. By such accumulation of suffixes, new compound suffixes were formed which crowded out even the old types of derivation. Thus, [p. 142]

A word like mns, mentis, by the suffix n- (nom. -), gave menti, and this, being divided into men + ti, gave rise to a new type of abstract nouns in -ti: as, lg-ti, embassy.

A word like audtor, by the suffix io- (nom. -ius), gave rise to adjectives like audtr-ius, of which the neuter (audtrium) is used to denote the place where the action of the verb is performed. Hence trio- (nom. -trium), N., becomes a regular noun-suffix ( 250. a).

So in English such a word as suffocation gives a suffix -ation, and with this is made starvation, though there is no such word as starvate.

Examples of primary stem-suffixes are:

I. Vowel suffixes:

1. o- (M., N.), - (F.), found in nouns and adjectives of the first two declensions: as, sonus, ldus, vagus, toga (root TEG).

2. i-, as in ovis, avis; in Latin frequently changed, as in rps, or lost, as in scobs (scobis, root SCAB).

3. u-, disguised in most adjectives by an additional i, as in su-vis (for sudvis, instead of su-dus, cf. ἡδύς), ten-uis (root TEN in tend), and remaining alone only in nouns of the fourth declension, as acus (root AK, sharp, in cer, acis, ὠκύς), pec, gen.

II. Suffixes with a consonant:

1. to- (M., N.), t- (F.), in the regular perfect passive participle, as tctus, tctum; sometimes with an active sense, as in ptus, prnsus; and found in a few words not recognized as participles, as ptus (cf. prus), altus (al).

2. ti- in abstracts and rarely in nouns of agency, as messis, vestis, pars, mns. But in many the i is lost.

3. tu- in abstracts (including supines), sometimes becoming concretes, as ctus, lctus.

4. no- (M., N.), n- (F.), forming perfect participles in other languages, and in Latin making adjectives of like participial meaning, which often become nouns, as mgnus, plnus, rgnum.

5. ni-, in nouns of agency and adjectives, as gnis, sgnis.

6. nu-, rare, as in manus, pnus, corn.

7. mo- (m-), with various meanings, as in animus, almus, frmus, forma.

8. vo- (v-) (commonly uo-, u-), with an active or passive meaning, as in equus (equos), arvum, cnspicuus, exiguus, vacvus (vacuus).

9. ro- (r-), as in ager (stem (ag-ro-), integer (cf. intctus), sacer, plr-que (cf. plnus, pltus).

10. lo- (l-), as in caelum (for caed-lum), chisel, exemplum, sella (for sedla).

11. yo- (y-), forming gerundives in other languages, and in Latin making adjectives and abstracts, including many of the first and fifth declensions, as eximius, audcia, Flrentia, pernicis.

12. ko- (k-), sometimes primary, as in pauc (cf. παῦρος), locus (for stlocus). In many cases the vowel of this termination is lost, leaving a consonant stem: as, apex, cortex, loqux. [p. 143]

13. en- (on-, n-, n-), in nouns of agency and abstracts: as, asperg, compg (-nis), ger (-nis).

14. men-, expressing means, often passing into the action itself: as, agmen flmen, fulmen.

15. ter- (tor-, tr-, tr-, tr-), forming nouns of agency: as, pater (i.e. protector), frter (i.e. supporter), rtor.

16. tro-, forming nouns of means: as, claustrum (CLAUD), mlctrum (MULG).

17. es- (os-), forming names of actions, passing into concretes: as, genus (generis), tempus (see 15. 4). The infinitive in -ere (as in reg-ere) is a locative of this stem ((--er-e for -es-i).

18. nt- (ont-, ent-), forming present active participles: as, legns, with some adjectives from roots unknown: as, frequns, recns.

The above, with some suffixes given below, belong to the Indo-European parent speech, and most of them were not felt as living formations in the Latin.

Significant Endings

Both primary and secondary suffixes, especially in the form of compound suffixes, were used in Latin with more or less consciousness of their meaning. They may therefore be called Significant Endings.

They form: (1) Nouns of Agency; (2) Abstract Nouns (including Names of Actions); (3) Adjectives (active or passive).

NOTE.There is really no difference in etymology between an adjective and a noun, except that some formations are habitually used as adjectives and others as nouns ( 20. b. N. 2).


Nouns of Agency

Nouns of Agency properly denote the agent or doer of an action. But they include many words in which the idea of agency has entirely faded out, and also many words used as adjectives.

Nouns denoting the agent or doer of an action are formed from roots or verb-stems by means of the suffixes

-tor (-sor), M.; -trx, F.

can-tor, can-trx, singer; can-ere (root CAN), to sing.
vic-tor, vic-trx, conqueror (victorious); vinc-ere (VIC), to conquer.
tn-sor (for tond-tor), tns-trx (for
tond-trx), hair-cutter; tond-re (TOND as root), to shear.
pet-tor, candidate; pet-re (PET; pet- as stem), to seek

[p. 144]

By analogy -tor is sometimes added to noun-stems, but these may be stems of lost verbs: as, vi-tor, traveller, from via, way (but cf. the verb invi).

NOTE 1.The termination -tor (-sor) has the same phonetic change as the supine ending -tum (-sum), and is added to the same form of root or verb-stem as that ending. The stem-ending is tr- ( 234. 2.15), which is shortened in the nominative.

NOTE 2.The feminine form is always -trx. Masculines in -sor lack the feminine, except expulsor (expultrx) and tnsor (tnstrx).

t-, M. or F., added to verb-stems makes nouns in -es (-itis, -etis; stem it-, et-) descriptive of a character:
prae-stes, -stitis, (verb-stem from root STA, stre, stand), guardian.
teges, -etis (verb-stem tege-, cf. teg, cover), a coverer, a mat.
pedes, -itis (ps, ped-is, foot, and I, root of re, go), foot-soldier.

- (genitive -nis, stem n)-, M., added to verb-stems 156 indicates a person employed in some specific art or trade:
com-bib (BIB as root in bib, bibere, drink), a pot-companion.
ger, -nis (GES in ger, gerere, carry), a carrier.

NOTE.This termination is also used to form many nouns descriptive of personal characteristics (cf. 255).

Names of Actions and Abstract Nouns

Names of Actions are confused, through their terminations, with real abstract nouns (names of qualities), and with concrete nouns denoting means and instrument.

They are also used to express the concrete result of an action (as often in English).

Thus legi is literally the act of collecting, but comes to mean legion (the body of soldiers collected); cf. levy in English.

Abstract Nouns and Names of Actions are formed from roots and verb-stems by means of the endings

Added to roots or forms conceived as roots

NOM. -or, M. -s, F. -us, N.
GEN. -ris -is -eris or -oris
STEM r- (earlier s-) i- er- (earlier (e/os-)

tim-or, fear; timre, to fear.
am-or, love; amre, to love.
sd-s, seat; sedre, to sit.
caed-s, slaughter; caedere, to kill.
genus, birth, race; GEN, to be born (root of gign, bear).

[p. 145]

NOTE.Many nouns of this class are formed by analogy from imaginary roots: as facinus from a supposed root FACIN.

Apparently added to roots or verb-stems

NOM. -i, F. -ti (-si), F. -tra (-sra), F. -tus, M.
GEN. -inis -tinis (-sinis) -trae (-srae) -ts (-ss)
STEM in- tin- (sin-) tr- (sr-) tu- (su-)

leg-i, a collecting (levy), a legion; legere, to collect.
reg-i, a direction, a region; regere, to direct.
voc-ti, a calling; vocre, to call.
ml-ti, a toiling; mlr, to toil.
scrp-tra, a writing; scrbere, to write.
sn-sus (for sent-tus), feeling; sentre, to feel.

NOTE 1.-ti, -tra, -tus are added to roots or verb-stems precisely as -tor, with the same phonetic change (cf. 236. a. N. 1). Hence they are conveniently associated with the supine stem (see 178). They sometimes form nouns when there is no corresponding verb in use: as, sentus, senate (cf. senex); menti, mention (cf. mns); ftra, offspring (cf. ftus); littertra, literature (cf. litterae); cnsultus, consulship (cf. cnsul).

NOTE 2.Of these endings, -tus was originally primary (cf. 234. 2.3.); -i is a compound formed by adding n- to a stem ending in a vowel (originally i): as, dici (cf. -dicus and dicis); -ti is a compound formed by adding n- to stems in ti-: as, gradti (cf. gradtim); -tra is formed by adding -ra, feminine of -rus, to stems in tu-: as, ntra from ntus; statra from status (cf. figra, of like meaning, from a simple u<*> stem, figu-s; and mtrus, Mtta).

Nouns denoting acts, or means and results of acts, are formed from roots or verb-stems by the use of the suffixes

-men, N.; -mentum, N.; -mnium, N.; -mnia, F.

ag-men, line of march, band; AG, root of agere, to lead.
regi-men, rule; regi-mentum, rule; regi- (rege-), stem of regere, to direct.
cert-men, contest, battle; cert-, stem of certre, to contend.


colu-men, pillar; m-men, movement; n-men, name; fl-men, stream.
testi-mnium, testimony; testr, to witness.
queri-mnia, complaint; quer, to complain.

-mnium and -mnia are also used as secondary, forming nouns from other nouns and from adjectives: as, sncti-mnia, sanctity (snctus, holy); mtrimnium, marriage (mter, mother.)

NOTE.Of these endings, -men is primary (cf. 234. 2.14); -mentum is a compound of men- and to-, and appears for the most part later in the language than -men: as, mmen, movement (Lucr.); mmentum (later). So elementum is a development from L-M-N-a, l-m-n's (letters of the alphabet), changed to elementa along with other nouns in -men. -mnium and -mnia were originally compound secondary suffixes formed from mn- (a by-form of men-), which was early associated with mo-. Thus almus [p. 146]

(stem almo-), fostering; Almn, a river near Rome; alimnia, support. But the last was formed directly from al when -mnia had become established as a supposed primary suffix.

Nouns denoting means or instrument are formed from roots and verb-stems (rarely from noun-stems) by means of the neuter suffixes

-bulum, -culum, -brum, -crum, -trum

p-bulum, fodder; pscere, to feed.
sta-bulum, stall; stre, to stand.
vehi-culum, wagon; vehere, to carry.
candl-brum, candlestick; candla, candle (a secondary formation).
sepul-crum, tomb; sepelre, to bury.
claus-trum (claud-trum), bar; claudere, to shut.
ar-trum, plough; arre, to plough.

NOTE.-trum (stem tro-) was an old formation from tor- ( 234. 2.15), with the stem suffix o-, and -clum (stem clo- for tlo-) appears to be related; -culum is the same as -clum; -bulum contains lo- ( 234. II. 9, 10) and -brum is closely related.

A few masculines and feminines of the same formation occur as nouns and adjectives:

f-bula, tale; fr, to speak.
rdi-culus, laughable; rdre, to laugh.
fa-ber, smith; facere, to make.
late-bra, hiding-place; latre, to hide.
tere-bra, auger; terere, to bore.
mulc-tra, milk-pail; mulgre, to milk.

Abstract Nouns, mostly from adjective-stems, rarely from noun-stems, are formed by means of the secondary feminine suffixes

-ia (-is), -tia (-tis), -ts, -ts, -td

audc-ia, boldness; audx, bold.
pauper-is, poverty; pauper, poor.
trsti-tia, sadness; trstis, sad.
sgni-tis, laziness; sgnis, lazy.
boni-ts, goodness; bonus, good.
senec-ts, age; senex, old.
mgni-td, greatness; mgnus, great.

1. In stems ending in o- or - the stem-vowel is lost before -ia (as superb-ia) and appears as i before -ts, -ts, -tia (as in boni-ts, above).

2. Consonant stems often insert i before -ts: as, loqux (stem loquc-), loquci-ts; but hones-ts, mies-ts (as if from old adjectives in -es), ber-ts, volup-ts. o after i is changed to e: as, pius (stem pio-), pie-ts; socius, socie-ts. [p. 147]

In like manner -d and -g (F.) form abstract nouns, but are associated with verbs and apparently added to verb-stems:
cup-d, desire, from cupere, to desire (as if from stem cup-).
dulc-d, sweetness (cf. dulcis, sweet), as if from a stem dulc-, cf. dulc-sc.
lumb-g, lumbago (cf. lumbus, loin), as if from lumb, -re.

NOTE.Of these, -ia is inherited as secondary (cf. 234. 2.11). -tia is formed by adding -ia to stems with a t-suffix: as, mlitia, from mles (stem mlit-); molestia from molestus; clmentia from clmns; whence by analogy, mali-tia, avri-tia. -ts is inherited, but its component parts, t- + ti-, are found as suffixes in the same sense: as, senecta from senex; smen-tis from smen. -ts is t- + ti-, cf. servit-d. -d and -g appear only with long vowels, as from verb-stems, by a false analogy; but -d is do- + n-: as, cupidus, cupd; gravidus, gravd (cf. grav-sc); albidus, albd (cf. albsc); formidus, hot, formd (cf. formdulsus), (hot flash?) fear; -g is possibly co- + n-; cf. vorx, vorg, but cf. Cethgus. -td is compounded of -d with tu-stems, which acquire a long vowel from association with verb-stems in u- (cf. volmen, from volv): as, cnsut-d, valt-d, habit-d; whence servitd (cf. servits, ttis).

Neuter Abstracts, which easily pass into concretes denoting offices and groups, are formed from noun-stems and perhaps from verb-stems by means of the suffixes

-ium, -tium

hospit-ium, hospitality, an inn; 157 hospes (gen. hospit-is), a guest.
collg-ium, colleagueship, a college; collga, a colleague.
auspic-ium, soothsaying, an omen; auspex (gen. auspic-is), a soothsayer.
gaud-ium, joy; gaudre, to rejoice.
effug-ium, escape; effugere, to escape.
benefic-ium, a kindness; benefacere, to benefit; cf. beneficus.
dsder-ium, longing; dsderre, to miss, from d-sds, out
of place, of missing soldiers.
adverb-ium, adverb; ad verbum, [added] to a verb.
interln-ium, time of new moon; inter lns, between moons.
rgifug-ium, flight of the kings; rgis fuga, flight of a king.
servi-tium, slavery, the slave class; servus, a slave.

Vowel stems lose their vowel before -ium: as, collg-ium, from collga.

NOTE.-ium is the neuter of the adjective suffix -ius. It is an inherited primary suffix, but is used with great freedom as secondary. -tium is formed like -tia, by adding -ium to stems with t: as, exit-ium, equit-ium (cf. exitus, equits); so, by analogy, calvitium, servitium (from calvus, servus).

Less commonly, abstract nouns (which usually become concrete) are formed from noun-stems (confused with verb-stems) by means of the suffixes [p. 148]

-nia, F.; -nium, -lium, -cinium, N.

pec-nia, money (chattels); pec, cattle.
contici-nium, the hush of night; conticscere, to become still.
auxi-lium, help; augre, to increase.
ltr-cinium, robbery; latr, robber (cf. latrcinor, rob, implying an adjective latrcinus).

For Diminutives and Patronymics, see 243, 244.


Derivative Adjectives, which often become nouns, are either Nominal (from nouns or adjectives) or Verbal (as from roots or verb-stems).

Nominal Adjectives

Diminutive Adjectives are usually confined to one gender, that of the primitive, and are used as Diminutive Nouns.

They are formed by means of the suffixes

-ulus (-a, -um), -olus (after a vowel), -culus, -ellus, -illus

rv-ulus, a streamlet; rvus, a brook.
gladi-olus, a small sword; gladius, a sword.
fli-olus, a little son; flius, a son.
fli-ola, a little daughter; flia, a daughter.
tri-olum, a little hall; trium, a hall.
homun-culus, a dwarf; hom, a man.
auri-cula, a little ear; auris, an ear.
mnus-culum, a little gift; mnus, N., a gift.
cdic-ill, writing-tablets; cdex, a block.
mis-ellus, rather wretched; miser, wretched.
lib-ellus, a little book; liber, a book.
aure-olus (-a, -um), golden; aureus (-a, -um), golden.
parv-olus (later parv-ulus), very small; parvus (-a, -um), little.
mius-culus, somewhat larger; mior (old mis), greater.

NOTE 1.These diminutive endings are all formed by adding -lus to various stems. The formation is the same as that of -ulus in 251. But these words became settled as diminutives, and retained their connection with nouns. So in English the diminutives whitish, reddish, are of the same formation as bookish and snappish, -culus comes from -lus added to adjectives in -cus formed from stems in n- and s-: as, iuven-cus, Aurun-cus (cf. Aurunculius), prs-cus, whence the cu becomes a part of the termination, and the whole ending (-culus) is used elsewhere, but mostly with n- and s- stems, in accordance with its origin.

NOTE 2.Diminutives are often used to express affection, pity, or contempt: as, dliciolae, little pet; muliercula, a poor (weak) woman; Graeculus, a miserable Greek. [p. 149]

-ci, added to stems in n-, has the same diminutive force, but is used with masculines only: as, homun-ci, a dwarf (from hom, a man).

Patronymics, indicating descent or relationship, are formed by adding to proper names the suffixes
-ads, -ids, -ds, -eus, M.; -s, -is, -is, F.

These words, originally Greek adjectives, have almost all become nouns in Latin:
Atls: Atlanti-ads, Mercury; Atlant-ids (Gr. plur.), the Pleiads.
Scpi: Scpi-ads, son of Scipio.
Tyndareus: Tyndar-ids, Castor or Pollux, son of Tyndarus; Tyndar-is, Helen, daughter of Tyndarus.
Anchss: Anchsi-ads, neas, son of Anchises.
Thseus: Ths-ds, son of Theseus.
Tdeus: Td-ds, Diomedes, son of Tydeus.
Oleus: ix Ol-eus, son of Oileus.
Cisseus: Ciss-is, Hecuba, daughter of Cisseus.
Thaums: Thaumant-is, Iris, daughter of Thaumas.
Hesperus: Hesper-ides (from Hesper-is, -idis), plur., the daughters of Hesperus, the Hesperides.

Adjectives meaning full of, prone to, are formed from nounstems with the suffixes

-sus, -lns, -lentus

fluctu-sus, billowy; fluctus, a billow.
form-sus, beautiful; forma, beauty.
percul-sus, dangerous; perculum, danger.
pesti-lns, pesti-lentus, pestilent; pestis, pest.
vno-lentus, vn-sus, given to drink; vnum, wine.

Adjectives meaning provided with are formed from nouns by means of the regular participial endings

-tus, -tus, -tus, -tus

fnes-tus, deadly; fnus (st. fner-, older (fne/os-), death.
hones-tus, honorable; honor, honor.
faus-tus (for faves-tus), favorable; favor, favor.
barb-tus, bearded; barba, a beard.
turr-tus, turreted; turris, a tower.
corn-tus, horned; corn, a horn.

NOTE.-tus, -tus, -tus, imply reference to an imaginary verb-stem: -tus is added directly to nouns without any such reference. [p. 150]

Adjectives of various meanings, but signifying in general made of or belonging to, are formed from nouns by means of the suffixes

-eus, -ius, -ceus, -cius, -neus (-neus), -ticus

aur-eus, golden; aurum, gold.
patr-ius, paternal; pater, a father.
uxr-ius, uxorious; uxor, a wife.
ros-ceus, of roses; rosa, a rose.
later-cius, of brick; later, a brick.
praesent-neus, operating instantly; praesns, present.
extr-neus, external; extr, without.
subterr-neus, subterranean; sub terr, underground.
salg-neus, of willow; salix, willow.
vol-ticus, winged (voltus, a flight); volre, to fly.
domes-ticus, of the house, domestic; domus, a house.
silv-ticus, sylvan; silva, a wood.

NOTE.-ius is originally primitive ( 234. 2.11); -eus corresponds to Greek -eios, eos, and has lost a y-sound (cf. yo-, 234. 2.11); -cius and -ceus are formed by adding -ius and -eus to stems in -c-, -c- (suffix ko-, 234. 2.12); -neus is no- + -eus ( 234. 2.4); -neus is formed by adding -neus to -stems; -ticus is a formation with -cus (cf. hosti-cus with silv-ticus), and has been affected by the analogy of participial stems in to- (nominative -tus).

Adjectives denoting pertaining to are formed from nounstems with the suffixes

-lis, -ris, -lis, -lis, -lis

ntr-lis, natural; ntra, nature.
popul-ris, fellow-countryman; populus, a people.
patru-lis, cousin; patruus, uncle.
host-lis, hostile; hostis, an enemy.
cur-lis, curule; currus, a chariot.

NOTE.The suffixes arise from adding -lis (stem li-) to various vowel stems. The long vowels are due partly to confusion between stem and suffix (cf. vt-lis, from vt-, with rg-lis), partly to confusion with verb-stems: cf. Aprlis (aperre), edlis (edere), with senlis (senex). -ris is an inherited suffix, but in most of these formations -ris arises by differentiation for -lis in words containing an 1 (as mlit-ris).

Adjectives with the sense of belonging to are formed by means of the suffixes
-nus, -nus, -nus; -s, -nsis; -cus, -acus (-cus), -icus; -eus, -ius, -icius

1. So from common nouns:

mont-nus, of the mountains; mns (stem monti-), mountain.
veter-nus, veteran; vetus (stem veter-), old.
antelc-nus, before daylight; ante lcem, before light.

[p. 151]

terr-nus, earthly; terra, earth.
ser-nus, calm (of evening stillness); srus, late.
coll-nus, of a hill; collis, hill.
dv-nus, aivine; dvus, god.
lbert-nus, of the class of freedmen; lbertus, one's freedman.
ci-s, of what country? quis, who?
nfim-s, of the lowest rank; nfimus, lowest.
for-nsis, of a market-place, or the Forum; forum, a market-place.
cvi-cus, civic, of a citizen; cvis, a citizen.
fulln-icus, of a fuller; full, a fuller.
mer-cus, pure; merum, pure wine.
fmin-eus, of a woman, feminine; fmina, a woman.
lact-eus, milky; lac, milk (stem lacti-).
plb-ius, of the commons, plebeian; plbs, the commons.
patr-icius, patrician; pater, father.

2. But especially from proper nouns to denote belonging to or coming from:

Rm-nus, Roman; Rma, Rome.
Sull-n, Sulla's veterans; Sulla.
Cyzic-n, Cyzicenes, people of Cyzicus; Cyzicus.
Ligur-nus, of Liguria; Liguria.
Arpn-s, of Arpinum; Arpnum.
Sicili-nsis, Sicilian; Sicilia, Sicily.
li-acus, Trojan (a Greek form); lium, Troy.
Platn-icus, Platonic; Plat.
Aquil-ius, a Roman name; Aquil-ia, a town in Italy; Aquila.

Many derivative adjectives with these endings have by usage become nouns:

Silv-nus, M., a god of the woods; silva, a wood.
membr-na, F., skin; membrum, limb.
Aemili-nus, M., name of Scipio Africanus; Aemilia (gns).
lani-na, F., a butcher's stall; lanius, butcher.
Aufidi-nus, M., a Roman name; Aufidius (Aufidus).
inquil-nus, M., a lodger; incola, an inhabitant.
Caec-na, used as M., a Roman name; caecus, blind.
ru-na, F., a fall; ru, fall (no noun existing).
doctr-na, F., learning; doctor, teacher.

NOTE.Of these terminations, -nus, -nus, -nus are compounded from -nus added to a stem-vowel: as, arca, arcnus; collis, collnus. The long vowels come from a confusion with verb-stems (as in pl-nus, fn-tus, trib-tus), and from the noun-stem in -. as, arcnus. A few nouns occur of similar formation, as if from verb-stems in - and -: as, colnus (col, cf. incola), patrnus (cf. patr, -re), tribnus (cf. tribu, tribus), Portnus (cf. portus), Vacna (cf. vac, vacuus).

Other adjectives meaning in a general way belonging to (especially of places and times) are formed with the suffixes [p. 152]

ter (-tris), -ester (-estris), -timus, -nus, -ernus, -urnus, -ternus (-turnus)

pals-ter, of the marshes; pals, a marsh.
pedes-ter, of the foot-soldiers; pedes, a footman.
sms-tris, lasting six months; sex mnss, six months.
silv-ester, silv-estris, woody; silva, a wood.
fni-timus, neighboring, on the borders; fnis, an end.
mari-timus, of the sea; mare, sea.
vr-nus, vernal; vr, spring.
hodi-ernus, of to-day; hodi, to-day.
di-urnus, daily; dis, day.
hes-ternus, of yesterday; her (old hes), yesterday.
di-turnus, lasting; di, long (in time).

NOTE.Of these, -ester is formed by adding tri- (cf. tro-, 234. 2.16) to stems in t- or d-. Thus pedet-tri- becomes pedestri-, and others follow the analogy. -nus is an inherited suffix ( 234. 2.4). -ernus and -urnus are formed by adding -nus to s-stems: as, diur-nus (for dius-nus), and hence, by analogy, hodiernus (hodi). By an extension of the same principle were formed the suffixes -ternus and -turnus from words like paternus and nocturnus.

Adjectives meaning belonging to are formed from nouns by means of the suffixes

-rius, -trius (-srius)

rdin-rius, regular; rd, rank, order.
argent-rius, of silver or money; argentum, silver.
extr-rius, stranger; extr, outside.
meri-trius, profitable; meritus, earned.
dvor-srius, of an inn (cf. 254. 5); dvorsus, turned aside.

NOTE 1.Here -ius ( 234. 2.11) is added to shorter forms in -ris and -or: as, peclirius (from pecliris), belltrius (from belltor).

NOTE 2.These adjectives are often fixed as nouns (see 254).

Verbal Adjectives

Adjectives expressing the action of the verb as a quality or tendency are formed from real or apparent verb-stems with the suffixes

-x, -idus, -ulus, -vus (-uus, -vus, -tvus)

-x denotes a faulty or aggressive tendency; -tvus is oftener passive.

pgn-x, pugnacious; pgnre, to fight.
aud-x, bold; audre, to dare.
cup-idus, eager; cupere, to desire.
bib-ulus, thirsty (as dry earth etc.); bibere, to drink.
proter-vus, violent, wanton; prterere, to trample.

[p. 153]

noc-uus (noc-vus), hurtful, injurious; nocre, to do harm.
recid-vus, restored; recidere, to fall back.
cap-tvus, captive; M., a prisoner of war; capere, to take.

NOTE.Of these, -x is a reduction of -cus (stem-vowel - + -cus), become independent and used with verb-stems. Similar forms in -x, -x, -x, and -x are found or employed in derivatives: as, imbrex, M., a rain-tile (from imber); senex, old (from seni-s); ferx, fierce (from ferus); atrx, savage (from ter, black); celx, F., a yacht (cf. cell); flx, happy, originally fertile (cf. fl, suck); fdcia, F., confidence (as from fdx); cf. also victrx (from victor). So mandcus, chewing (from mand).

-idus is no doubt denominative, as in herbidus, grassy (from herba, herb); tumidus, swollen (cf. tumu-lus, hill; tumul-tus, uproar); callidus, tough, cunning (cf. callum, tough flesh); mcidus, slimy (cf. mcus, slime); tbidus, wasting (cf. tbs, wasting disease). But later it was used to form adjectives directly from verb-stems.

-ulus is the same suffix as in diminutives, but attached to verb-stems. Cf. aemulus, rivalling (cf. imitor and img); sdulus, sitting by, attentive (cf. domi-seda, homestaying, and sd, set, settle, hence calm); pendulus, hanging (cf. pond, ablative, in weight; perpendiculum, a plummet; appendix, an addition); strgulus, covering (cf. strgs); legulus, a picker (cf. sacri-legus, a picker up of things sacred).

-vus seems originally primary (cf. 234. 2.8), but -vus and -tvus have become secondary and are used with nouns: as, aestvus, of summer (from aestus, heat); tempestvus, timely (from tempus); cf. domes-ticus (from domus).

Adjectives expressing passive qualities, but occasionally active, are formed by means of the suffixes

-ilis, -bilis, -ius, -tilis (-silis)

frag-ilis, frail; frangere (FRAG), to break.
n-bilis, well known, famous; nscere (GNO), to know.
exim-ius, choice, rare (cf. -greg-ius); eximere, to take out, select.
ag-ilis, active; agere, to drive.
hab-ilis, handy; habre, to hold.
al-tilis, fattened (see note); alere, to nourish.

NOTE.Of these, -ius is primary, but is also used as secondary (cf. 241. b. N.). -ilis is both primary (as in agilis, fragilis) and secondary (as in similis, like, cf. ὅμος, ὅμαλος, English same); -bilis is in some way related to -bulum and -brum ( 240. N.); in -tilis and -silis, -lis is added to to- (so-), stem of the perfect participle: as, fossilis, dug up (from fossus, dug); voltilis, winged (from voltus, flight).

Verbal Adjectives that are Participial in meaning are formed with the suffixes

-ndus, -bundus, -cundus

-ndus (the same as the gerundive ending) forms a few active or reflexive adjectives:

secu-ndus, second (the following), favorable; sequ, to follow.
rotu-ndus, round (whirling) 158 ; rotre, to whirl.

[p. 154]

-bundus, -cundus, denote a continuance of the act or quality expressed by the verb:

vt-bundus, avoiding; vtre, to shun.
treme-bundus, trembling; tremere, to tremble.
mori-bundus, dying, at the point of death; morr, to die.
f-cundus, eloquent; fr, to speak.
f-cundus, fruitful; root F, nourish.
r-cundus, irascible; cf. rsc, to be angry.

NOTE.These must have been originally nominal: as in the series, rubus, red bush; rubidus (but no rubicus), ruddy; Rubicn, Red River (cf. Mini, a river of Etruria; Minius, a river of Lusitania); rubicundus (as in averruncus, homun-culus). So turba, commotion; turb, a top; turbidus, roily, etc. Cf. apexab, longab, gravd, dulcd.

Here belong also the participial suffixes -minus, -mnus (cf. Greek -μενος), from which are formed a few nouns in which the participial force is still discernible: 159

f-mina, woman (the nourisher); root F, nourish.
alu-mnus, a foster-child, nursling; alere, to nourish.

Nouns with Adjective Suffixes

Many fixed forms of the Nominal Adjective suffixes men tioned in the preceding sections, make Nouns more or less regularly used in particular senses:

1. -rius, person employed about anything:
argent-rius, M., silversmith, broker, from argentum, silver.
Corinthi-rius, M., worker in Corinthian bronze (sarcastic nickname of Augustus), from (aes) Corinthium, Corinthian bronze.
centn-rius, M., ragman, from cent, patchwork.

2. -ria, thing connected with something:
argent-ria, F., bank, from argentum, silver.
arn-riae, F. plural, sandpits, from arna, sand.
Asin-ria, F., name of a play, from asinus, ass. 160

3. -rium, place of a thing (with a few of more general meaning):
aer-rium, N., treasury, from aes, copper.
tepid-rium, N., warm bath, from tepidus, warm.
sd-rium, N., a towel, cf. sd, -re, sweat.
sal-rium, N., salt money, salary, from sl, salt.
calendrium, N., a note-book, from calendae, calends. [p. 155]

4. -tria (-sria):
Agit-tria, F., a play of Plautus, The Carter, from agittor.
vor-sria, F., a tack (nautical), from vorsus, a turn.

5. -trium (-srium), place of action (with a few of more general meaning):
dvor-srium, N., an inn, as from dvort, turn aside.
aud-trium, N., a lecture-room, as from audi, hear.
ten-trium, N., a tent, as from tend, stretch.
tc-trium, N., plaster, as from teg, tctus, cover.
por-trium, N., toll, cf. port, carry, and portus, harbor.

6. -le, animal-stall:
bov-le, N., cattle-stall, from bs, bvis, ox, cow.
ov-le, N., sheepfold, from ovis, stem ovi-, sheep.

7. -al for -le, thing connected with the primitive:
capit-al, N., headdress, capital crime, from caput, head.
penetr-le (especially in plural), N., inner apartment, cf. penetr, enter.
Sturn-lia, N. plural (the regular form for names of festivals), feast of Sat urn, from Sturnus.

8. -tum, N. (cf. -tus, -tus, see 246. N.), -tum, place of a thing, especially with names of trees and plants to designate where these grow:
querc-tum, N., oak grove, from quercus, oak.
olv-tum, N., olive grove, from olva, an olive tree.
salic-tum, N., a willow thicket, from salix, a willow tree.
Argil-tum, N., The Clay Pit, from argilla, clay.

9. -cus (sometimes with inserted i, -icus), -cus, in any one of the genders, with various meanings:
vli-cus, M., a steward, vli-ca, F., a stewardess, from vlla, farm-house.
fabr-ica, F., a workshop, from faber, workman.
am-cus, M., am-ca, F., friend, cf. amre, to love.
bbul-cus, M., ox-tender, from bb-ulus, diminutive, cf. bs, ox.
cant-icum, N., song, from cantus, act of singing.
rubr-ca, F., red paint, from ruber, red.

10. -eus, -ea, -eum, with various meanings:
alv-eus, M., a trough, from alvus, the belly.
capr-ea, F., a wild she-goat, from caper, he-goat.
flamm-eum, N., a bridal veil, from flamma, flame, from its color.

11. -ter (stem tri-), -aster, -ester:
eques-ter, M., knight, for equet-ter.
sequ-ester, M., a stake-holder, from derivative of sequor, follow.
ole-aster, M., wild olive, from olea, an olive tree. [p. 156]


The suffix - (genitive -nis, stem n-), usually added to verb-stems (see 236. c), is sometimes used with noun-stems to form nouns denoting possessed of. These were originally adjectives expressing quality or character, and hence often appear as proper names:
epulae, a feast; epul-, a feaster.
nsus, a nose; ns-, with a large nose (also as a proper name).
volus (in bene-volus), wishing; vol-ns (plural), volunteers.
frns, forehead; front-, big-head (also as a proper name).
cria, a curia; cri-, head of a curia (also as a proper name).
restis, a rope; resti-, a rope-maker.

Rarely suffixes are added to compound stems imagined, but not used in their compound form:
ad-verb-ium, adverb; ad, to, and verbum, verb, but without the intervening adverbus.
lti-fund-ium, large estate; ltus, wide, fundus, estate, but without the inter vening ltifundus.
su-ove-taur-lia, a sacrifice of a swine, a sheep, and a bull; ss, swine, ovis, sheep, taurus, bull, where the primitive would be impossible in Latin, though such formations are common in Sanskrit.


Verbs may be classed as Primitive or Derivative.

1. Primitive Verbs are those inherited by the Latin from the parent speech.

2. Derivative Verbs are those formed in the development of the Latin as a separate language.

Derivative Verbs are of two main classes:

1. Denominative Verbs, formed from nouns or adjectives.

2. Verbs apparently derived from the stems of other verbs

Denominative Verbs

Verbs were formed in Latin from almost every form of noun-stem and adjective-stem.

1. Verbs of the First Conjugation are formed directly from -stems, regularly with a transitive meaning: as, fuga, flight; fugre, put to flight. [p. 157]

2. Many verbs of the First Conjugation are formed from o- stems, changing the o- into -. These are more commonly transitive:
stimul, -re, to incite, from stimulus, a good (stem stimulo-).
aequ, -re, to make even, from aequus, even (stem aequo-).
hbern, -re, to pass the winter, from hbernus, of the winter (stem hberno-).
alb, -re, to whiten, from albus, white (stem albo-).
pi, -re, to expiate, from pius, pure (stem pio-).
nov, -re, to renew, from novus, new (stem novo-).
arm, -re, to arm, from arma, arms (stem armo-).
damn, -re, to injure, from damnum, injury (stem damno-).

3. A few verbs, generally intransitive, are formed by analogy from consonant and i- or u-stems, adding to the stem: 161
vigil, -re, to watch, from vigil, awake.
exsul, -re, to be in exile, from exsul, an exile.
auspicor, -r, to take the auspices, from auspex (stem auspic-), augur.
pulver, -re, to turn (anything) to dust, from pulvis (stem pulver- for pulvis-), dust.
aestu, -re, to surge, boil, from aestus (stem aestu-), tide, seething
lev, -re, to lighten, from levis (stem levi-), light.

A few verbs of the Second Conjugation (generally intransitive) are recognizable as formed from noun-stems; but most are inherited, or the primitive noun-stem is lost:
albe, -re, to be white, from albus (stem (albo/e-), white.
cneo, -re, to be hoary, from cnus (stem (cno/e-), hoary.
clre, -re, to shine, from clrus, bright.
claude, -re, to be lame, from claudus, lame.
alge, -re, to be cold, cf. algidus, cold.

Some verbs of the Third Conjugation in -u, -uere, are formed from noun-stems in u- and have lost a consonant i:
statu (for statu-y), -ere, to set up, from status, position.
metu, -ere, to fear, from metus, fear.
acu, -ere, to sharpen, from acus, needle.
argu, -ere, to clear up, from inherited stem argu-, bright (cf. ἄργυρος).

NOTE.Many verbs in u are inherited, being formed from roots in u: as, flu, fluere, flow; so-lv (for s-lu, cf. λύω), solvere, dissolve. Some roots have a parasitic u: as, loquor, loctus, speak. [p. 158]

Many -verbs or verbs of the Fourth Conjugation are formed from i-stems:
mlior, -r, to toil, from mls (-is), mass.
fni, -re, to bound, from fnis, end.
siti, -re, to thirst, from sitis, thirst.
stabili, -re, to establish, from stabilis, stable.

Some arise by confusion from other stems treated as i-stems:
bulli, -re, to boil, from bulla (stem bull-), bubble.
condi, -re, to preserve, from condus (stem condo-), storekeeper.
nsni, -re, to rave, from nsnus (stem nsno-), mad.
gesti, -re, to show wild longing, from gestus (stem gestu-), gesture.

NOTE.Some of this form are of doubtful origin: as, rdior, begin, cf. rdo and exrdium. The formation is closely akin to that of verbs in -i of the third conjugation (p. 102).

Some are formed with -i from consonant stems:
cstdi, -re, to guard, from csts (stem cstd-), guardian.
fulguri, -re, to lighten, from fulgur, lightning.

NOTE.Here probably belong the so-called desideratives in -uri (see 263. 4. N.).

Verbs from Other Verbs

The following four classes of verbs regularly derived from other verbs have special meanings connected with their terminations.

NOTE.These classes are all really denominative in their origin, but the formations had become so associated with actual verbs that new derivatives were often formed directly from verbs without the intervention of a noun-stem.

1. Inceptives or Inchoatives add -sc 162 to the present stem of verbs. They denote the beginning of an action and are of the Third Conjugation. Of some there is no simple verb in existence:
cal-sc, grow warm, from cale, be warm.
lab-sc, begin to totter, from lab, totter.
sc-sc, determine, from sci, know.
con-cup-sc, conceive a desire for, from cupi, desire.
al-sc, grow, from al, feed.
So r-scor, get angry; cf. r-tus.
iuven-sc, grow young; cf. iuvenis, young man.
mt-sc, grow mild; cf. mtis, mild.
vesper-scit, it is getting late; cf. vesper, evening. [p. 159]

NOTE.Inceptives properly have only the present stem, but many use the perfect and supine systems of simple verbs: as, calsc, grow warm, calu; rdsc, blaze forth, rs; proficscor, set out, profectus.

2. Intensives or Iteratives are formed from the Supine stem and end in-t or -it (rarely -s). They denote a forcible or repeated action, but this special sense often disappears. Those derived from verbs of the First Conjugation end in -it (not -t).
iac-t, hurl, from iaci, throw.
dorm-t, be sleepy, from dormi, sleep.
vol-it, flit, from vol, fly.
vndi-t, try to sell, from vnd, sell.
quas-s, shatter, from quati, shake.

They are of the first conjugation, and are properly denominative.

Compound suffixes -tit, -sit, are formed with a few verbs. These are probably derived from other Iteratives; thus, cantit may come from cant, iterative of can, sing.

Another form of Intensivessometimes called Meditatives, or verbs of practiceends in -ess (rarely -iss). These denote a certain energy or eagerness of action rather than its repetition:
cap-ess, lay hold on, from capi, take.
fac-ess, do (with energy), from faci, do.
pet-esso, pet-iss, seek (eagerly), from pet, seek.

These are of the third conjugation, usually having the perfect and supine of the fourth:
arcess, arcessre, arcessv, arcesstum, summon.
lacess, lacessre, lacessv, lacesstum, provoke.

NOTE.The verbs in -ess, -iss, show the same formation as levss, impetrssere, idicssit, etc. ( 183. 5), but its origin is not fully explained.

3. Diminutives end in -ill, and denote a feeble or petty action:
cav-illor, jest, cf. cavilla, raillery.
cant-ill, chirp or warble, from cant, sing.

NOTE.Diminutives are formed from verb-stems derived from real or supposed diminutive nouns.

4. Desideratives end in -turi (-suri), and express longing or wishing. They are of the fourth conjugation, and only two are in common use:
par-turi, be in labor, from pari, bring forth.
-suri (for ed-turi), be hungry, from ed, eat.

Others are used by the dramatists.

NOTE.Desideratives are probably derived from some noun of agency: as, mpturi, wish to buy, from mptor, buyer. Vs, go to see, is an inherited desiderative of a different formation. [p. 160]



A Compound Word is one whose stem is made up of two or more simple stems.


A final stem-vowel of the first member of the compound usually disappears before a vowel, and usually takes the form of i before a consonant. Only the second member receives inflection. 163


Only noun-stems can be thus compounded. A preposition, however, often becomes attached to a verb.


New stems are formed by Composition in three ways:

1. The second part is simply added to the first:
su-ove-taurlia (ss, ovis, taurus), the sacrifice of a swine, a sheep, and a bull (cf. 255. a).
septen-decim (septem, decem), seventeen.

2. The first part modifies the second as an adjective or adverb (Determinative Compounds):
lti-fundium (ltus, fundus), a large landed estate.
omni-potns (omnis, potns), omnipotent.

3. The first part has the force of a case, and the second a verbal force (Objective Compounds):
agri-cola (ager, field, cola akin to col, cultivate), a farmer.
armi-ger (arma, arms, ger akin to ger, carry), armor-bearer.
corni-cen (corn, horn, cen akin to can, sing), horn-blower.
carni-fex (car, flesh, fex akin to faci, make), executioner.


Compounds of the above kinds, in which the last word is a noun, may become adjectives, meaning possessed of the quality denoted:
li-ps (la, wing, ps, foot), wing-footed.
mgn-animus (mgnus, great, animus, soul), great-souled.
an-ceps (amb-, at both ends, caput, head), double.

NOTE.Many compounds of the above classes appear only in the form of some further derivative, the proper compound not being found in Latin. [p. 161]

Syntactic Compounds

In many apparent compounds, complete wordsnot stemshave grown together in speech. These are not strictly compounds in the etymological sense. They are called Syntactic Compounds. Examples are:

Compounds of faci, fact, with an actual or formerly existing nounstem confounded with a verbal stem in -. These are causative in force.
cnsu-faci, habituate (cf. cnsu-sc, become accustomed).
cale-faci, cale-fact, to heat (cf. cal-sc, grow warm).

An adverb or noun combined with a verb:
bene-dc (bene, well, dc, speak), to bless.
satis-faci (satis, enough, faci, do), to do enough (for).

Many apparent compounds of stems:
fide-iube (fide, surety, iube, command), to give surety.
mn-sutus (manu, to the hand, sutus, accustomed), tame.
Mrci-por (Mrc puer), slave of Marcus.
Iuppiter (I, old vocative, and pater), father Jove.
anim-advert (animum advert), attend to, punish.

A few phrases forced into the ordinary inflections of nouns:
pr-cnsul, proconsul (for pr cnsule, instead of a consul).
trium-vir, triumvir (singular from trium virrum).
septen-tri, the Bear, a constellation (supposed singular of septem trins, the Seven Plough-Oxen).

In all these cases it is to be observed that words, not stems, are united.

Many syntactic compounds are formed by prefixing a Particle to some other part of speech.

Prepositions are often prefixed to Verbs. In these compounds the prepositions retain their original adverbial sense:
, ab, AWAY: -mittere, to send away.
ad, TO, TOWARDS: af-ferre (ad-fer), to bring.
ante, BEFORE: ante-ferre, to prefer; ante-cellere, to excel.
circum, AROUND: circum-mnre, to fortify completely.
com-, con- (cum), TOGETHER or FORCIBLY: cn-ferre, to bring together; collocre, to set firm.
d, DOWN, UTTERLY: d-spicere, despise; d-struere, destroy.
, ex, OUT: ef-ferre (ec-fer), to carry forth, uplift.
in (with verbs), IN, ON, AGAINST: n-ferre, to bear against.
inter, BETWEEN, TO PIECES: inter-rumpere, to interrupt.
ob, TOWARDS, TO MEET: of-ferre, to offer; ob-venre, to meet.
sub, UNDER, UP FROM UNDER: sub-struere, to build beneath; sub-dcere, to lead up
super, UPON, OVER AND ABOVE: super-fluere, to overflow. [p. 162]

NOTE 1.In such compounds, however, the prepositions sometimes have their crdinary force as prepositions, especially ad, in, circum, trns, and govern the case of a noun: as, trnsre flmen, to cross a river (see 388. b).

NOTE 2.Short a of the root is weakened to i before one consonant, to e before two: as, faci, cnfici, cnfectus; iaci, ici, iectus. But long a is retained: as, perctus.

VERBS are also compounded with the following inseparable particles, which do not appear as prepositions in Latin:
amb- (am-, an-), AROUND: amb-re, to go about (cf. ἀμφί, about).
dis-, d-, ASUNDER, APART: dis-cdere, to depart (cf. duo, two); d-vidre, to divide.
por-, FORWARD: por-tendere, to hold forth, predict (cf. porr, forth).
red-, re-, BACK, AGAIN: red-re, to return; re-cldere, to open (from claud, shut); re-ficere, to repair (make again).
sd-, s-, APART: s-cern, to separate; cf. sd-iti, a going apart, secession (e, re, to go).

Many Verbals are found compounded with a preposition, like the verbs to which they correspond:
per-fuga, deserter; cf. per-fugi.
tr-dux, vine-branch; cf. tr-dc (trns-dc).
ad-vena, stranger; cf. ad-veni.
con-iux (con-inx), spouse; cf. con-iung.
in-dex, pointer out; cf. in-dc.
prae-ses, guardian; cf. prae-side.
com-bib, boon companion; cf. com-bib, -re.

An Adjective is sometimes modified by an adverbial prefix.

1. Of these, per- (less commonly prae-), very; sub-, somewhat; in-, not, ar regular, and are very freely prefixed to adjectives:

per-mgnus, very large. in-nocuus, harmless.
per-pauc, very few. in-imcus, unfriendly.
sub-rsticus, rather clownish. n-snus, insane.
sub-fuscus, darkish. n-fntus, boundless.
prae-longus, very long. im-prus, impure.

NOTE.Per and sub, in these senses, are also prefixed to verbs: as, per-terre, terrify; sub-rde, smile. In gnsc, pardon, in- appears to be the negative prefix.

2. The negative in- sometimes appears in combination with an adjective that does not occur alone:
in-ermis, unarmed (cf. arma, arms).
im-bellis, unwarlike (cf. bellum, war).
im-pnis, without punishment (cf. poena, punishment).
in-teger, untouched, whole (cf. tang, to touch, root TAG).
in-vtus, unwilling (probably from root seen in v-s, thou wishest).

[p. 163]




The study of formal grammar arose at a late period in the history of language, and dealt with language as a fully developed product. Accordingly the terms of Syntax correspond to the logical habits of thought and forms of expression that had grown up at such a period, and have a logical as well as a merely grammatical meaning. But a developed syntactical structure is not essential to the expression of thought. A form of wordslike puerum pulchrum! oh! beautiful boyexpresses a thought and might even be called a sentence; though it does not logically declare anything, and does not, strictly speaking, make what is usually called a sentence at all.

At a very early period of spoken language, word-forms were no doubt significant in themselves, without inflections, and constituted the whole of language,just as to a child the name of some familiar object will stand for all he can say about it. At a somewhat later stage, such uninflected words put side by side made a rudimentary form of proposition: as a child might say fire bright; horse run. With this began the first form of logical distinction, that of Subject and Predicate; but as yet there was no distinction in form between noun and verb, and no fixed distinction in function. At a later stage forms were differentiated in function andby various processes of composition which cannot be fully tracedInflections were developed. These served to express person, tense, case, and other grammatical relations, and we have true Parts of Speech.

Not until language reached this last stage was there any fixed limit to the association of words, or any rule prescribing the manner in which they should be combined. But gradually, by usage, particular forms came to be limited to special functions (as nouns, verbs, adjectives), and fixed customs arose of combining words into what we now call Sentences. These customs are in part the result of general laws or modes of thought (logic), resulting from our habits of mind (General Grammar); and in part are what may be called By-Laws, established by custom in a given language (Particular Grammar), and making what is called the Syntax of that language.

In the fully developed methods of expression to which we are almost exclusively accustomed, the unit of expression is the Sentence: that is, the completed statement, with its distinct Subject and Predicate. Originally sentences were simple. But two simple sentence-forms may be used together, without the grammatical subordination of either, to express a more complex form of thought than could be denoted by one alone. This is parataxis (arrangement side by side). Since, however, the two sentences, independent in form, were in fact used to express parts of a complex whole and were therefore mutually dependent, the sense of unity found expression in conjunctions, which denoted the grammatical subordination of the one to the other. This is hypotaxis (arrangement under, subordination). In this way, through various stages of development, which correspond to our habitual modes of thought, there were produced various forms of complex sentences. Thus, to express the complex idea I beseech you to pardon me, the two simple sentence-forms quaes and gnscs were used side by side, quaes gnscs; then the feeling of grammatical subordination found expression in a conjunction, quaes ut gnscs, forming a complex sentence. The results of these processes constitute the subject-matter of Syntax. [p. 164]