LESSON LVIII: Conditional Relative Sentences.

Conditional Relative Sentences

531. A relative clause with an indefinite antecedent has a conditional force, and is called a conditional relative clause. This conditional relative clause stands in the relation of a protasis to the antecedent clause, which is its apodosis. Its negative is always μή.

532. Review the discussion of Conditional Sentences in Lesson 31, Lesson 32, Lesson 38, and Lesson 57.

533. A conditional relative sentence differs from a conditional sentence not in force, but only in form. It substitutes for the ordinary conditional particle εἰ, if, a relative pronoun or adverb, but with the added idea of the person, thing, time, place, or manner, contained in the relative.

For example:

1. ὅ τι βούλεται (=εἴ τι βούλεται, 305) πράξω, I will do whatever he (now) wishes; ὅ τι ἐβούλετο (=εἴ τι ἐβούλετο, 305) πράξω, I will do whatever he wished.

2. ὅ τι ἐβουλήθη (=εἴ τι ἐβουλήθη, 307) ἔπρᾱξα ἄν, I should have done whatever he had wished; ὅ τι ἐβούλετο (=εἴ τι ἐβούλετο, 307) ἔπρᾱττον ἄν, I should be doing whatever he wished.

3. ὅ τι ἂν βούληται (= ἐάν τι βούληται, 317) πράξω, I will do whatever he wishes.

4. ὅ τι βούλοιτο (= εἴ τι βούλοιτο, 364) πράξαιμι ἄν, I should do whatever he wished.

5. ὅ τι ἂν βούληται (= ἐάν τι βούληται, 524) πράττω, I (always) do whatever he wishes; ὅ τι βούλοιτο (= εἴ τι βούλοιτο, 525) ἔπρᾱττον, I (always) did whatever he wished.

534. The particles ἕως, ἔστε, ἄχρι, μέχρι, until, follow the construction of conditional relatives in both forms of future conditions (533, 3 and 4), in unfulfilled conditions (533, 2), and in present and past general suppositions (533, 5).

The particle πρίν

535. The particle πρίν, before, until, is used in the same way, but only when the leading verb is negative or implies a negative.

Thus, οὐ πρόσθεν παύσομαι πρὶν ἂν ύμᾶς καταγάγω οἴκαδε, I will not stop until I bring you home.

536. πρίν, before, is followed also by the infinitive (471), but only when the leading clause is affirmative.


ἔωςconj., as long as, while, until.
ζάω, ζήσωlive, be alive.
ζώνη, ης, ἡbelt, girdle.
θάνατος, ου, ὁdeath.
καιρός, οῦ, ὁfitting time, occasion.
κατα-λύωunloose, halt, dissolve, make peace.
κατα-ψηφίζομαιmid. dep., vote against.
μάχομαι, μαχοῦμαι, ἐμαχεσάμην, μεμάχημαι (cf. μάχη)fight, give battle.
ὁπότεrel. adv., when, whenever.
προσ-κυνέω, προσ-κυνήσω, προσ-εκύνησα (cf. κυνέω, kiss)make obeisance to, salute.
προσ-τάττωassign, give orders to.
χῑλός, οῦ, ὁfodder, forage.


1. ἄξιος φίλος ἐστὶν ὁ Κῦρος ᾧ ἂν φίλος ᾖ.
2. ὅπου στρατηγὸς ἔτι ζώῃ,1 τὸν στρατηγὸν παρεκάλουν.
3. ἐγὼ γὰρ φοβοίμην ἂν τῷ ἡγεμόνι ᾧ2 ἡμῖν πέμψειεν ἕπεσθαι.
4. ὁπόταν καιρὸς ᾖ, ἥξω ἐπὶ τὴν πόλιν.
5. ὁπότε καταψηφίζοιντό τινος3 θάνατον οἱ Πέρσαι, ἐλάμβανον τῆς ζώνης4.
6. τούτους τοὺς σταθμοὺς πάνυ μακροὺς ἐπορεύοντο, ὁπότε ἢ πρὸς ὕδωρ βούλοιντο ἥκειν ἢ πρὸς χῑλόν.
7. οὐκ ἂν προσεκύνησαν ὃν μὴ ἐβούλοντο.
8. ἔσονται σπονδαὶ ἕως ἂν βασιλεὺς ἡμῖν προστάξῃ μάχεσθαι.
9. ὅτῳ οὖν ταῦτα μὴ δοκεῖ καλῶς ἔχειν, ἀποχωρησάτω.
10. οὐ καταλύσει πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους πρὶν ἄν σοι συμβουλεύσηται.

NOTES. —1 By contraction for ζαοίη (781).—2 The relative is assimilated to the case of its antecedent (828). —3 The genitive often depends on a preposition included in a compound verb (852). —4 The genitive follows verbs signifying to take hold of (845). —5 in company with, σύν.

540. Orontas is led away.

μετὰ ταῦτα κελεύοντος Κύρου ἔλαβον τῆς ζώνης τὸν Ὀρόντᾱν ἐπὶ θανάτῳ ἅπαντες οἱ παρόντες. εἶτα δ᾿ ἐξῆγον αὐτὸν οἷς προσετάχθη, καὶ οἱ πρόσθεν προσκυνοῦντες αὐτὸν καὶ (even) τότε προσεκύνησαν, καίπερ ἐπὶ θάνατον ἀγόμενον. ἐπεὶ δὲ εἰς τὴν Ἀρταπάτου σκηνὴν εἰσήχθη, σκηπτούχου πιστοῦ τῷ Κύρῳ ὄντος, μετὰ ταῦτα οὐδὲν περὶ αὐτοῦ ἤκουεν οὐδείς· εἴκαζον δὲ ἄλλοι ἄλλως ὅπως (how) ἀπέθανεν.

NOTES. —1. ἔλαβον. . . θανάτῳ: took him by the girdle as a sign that he was condemned to death, but in 4 ἐπὶ θάνατον, to execution. —4. καίπερ: although, strengthening the following concessive participle. —7. οὐδὲν . . . οὐδείς: Greek doubles the negative, nothing . . . nobody; English says nothing . . . anybody. —ἄλλοι ἄλλως: some in one way, others in another (literally, others in another way). —8. ἀπέθανεν: second aorist of ἀποθνῄσκω.