LESSON XLVI: Adjective Stems in ν and εσ of the Consonant Declension.

426. Learn the declension of μέλᾱς, black, εὐδαίμων, fortunate, and ἀληθής, true, in 752.

μέλᾱς, black
Masculine Nominative Singularμέλᾱς
Masculine Genitive Singularμέλανος
Masculine Dative Singularμέλανι
Masculine Accusative Singularμέλανα
Masculine Vocative Singularμέλαν
Masculine Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualμέλανε
Masculine Genitive and Dative Dualμελάνοιν
Masculine Nominative and Vocative Pluralμέλανες
Masculine Genitive Pluralμελάνων
Masculine Dative Pluralμέλασι
Masculine Accusative Pluralμέλανας
μέλᾱς, black
Feminine Nominative Singularμέλαινα
Feminine Genitive Singularμελαίνης
Feminine Dative Singularμελαίνῃ
Feminine Accusative Singularμέλαιναν
Feminine Vocative Singularμέλαινα
Feminine Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualμελαίνᾱ
Feminine Genitive and Dative Dualμελαίναιν
Feminine Nominative and Vocative Pluralμέλαιναι
Feminine Genitive Pluralμελαινῶν
Feminine Dative Pluralμελαίναις
Feminine Accusative Pluralμελαίνᾱς
μέλᾱς, black
Neuter Nominative Singularμέλαν
Neuter Genitive Singularμέλανος
Neuter Dative Singularμέλανι
Neuter Accusative Singularμέλαν
Neuter Vocative Singularμέλαν
Neuter Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualμέλανε
Neuter Genitive and Dative Dualμελάνοιν
Neuter Nominative and Vocative Pluralμέλανα
Neuter Genitive Pluralμελάνων
Neuter Dative Pluralμέλασι
Neuter Accusative Pluralμέλανα
εὐδαίμων, fortunate
Masculine and Feminine Nominative Singularεὐδαίμων
Masculine and Feminine Genitive Singularεὐδαίμονος
Masculine and Feminine Dative Singularεὐδαίμονι
Masculine and Feminine Accusative Singularεὐδαίμονα
Masculine and Feminine Vocative Singularεὔδαιμον
Masculine and Feminine Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualεὐδαίμονε
Masculine and Feminine Genitive and Dative Dualεὐδαιμόνοιν
Masculine and Feminine Nominative and Vocative Pluralεὐδαίμονες
Masculine and Feminine Genitive Pluralεὐδαιμόνων
Masculine and Feminine Dative Pluralεὐδαίμοσι
Masculine and Feminine Accusative Pluralεὐδαίμονας
εὐδαίμων, fortunate
Neuter Nominative Singularεὔδαιμον
Neuter Genitive Singularεὐδαίμονος
Neuter Dative Singularεὐδαίμονι
Neuter Accusative Singularεὔδαιμον
Neuter Vocative Singularεὔδαιμον
Neuter Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualεὐδαίμονε
Neuter Genitive and Dative Dualεὐδαιμόνοιν
Neuter Nominative and Vocative Pluralεὐδαίμονα
Neuter Genitive Pluralεὐδαιμόνων
Neuter Dative Pluralεὐδαίμοσι
Neuter Accusative Pluralεὐδαίμονα
ἀληθής, true
Masculine and Feminine Nominative Singularἀληθής
Masculine and Feminine Genitive Singular(ἀληθέ-ος) ἀληθοῦς
Masculine and Feminine Dative Singular(ἀληθέ-ϊ) ἀληθεῖ
Masculine and Feminine Accusative Singular(ἀληθέ-α) ἀληθῆ
Masculine and Feminine Vocative Singularἀληθές
Masculine and Feminine Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dual(ἀληθέ-ε) ἀληθεῖ
Masculine and Feminine Genitive and Dative Dual(ἀληθέ-οιν) ἀληθοῖν
Masculine and Feminine Nominative and Vocative Plural(ἀληθέ-ες) ἀληθεῖς
Masculine and Feminine Genitive Plural(ἀληθέ-ων) ἀληθῶν
Masculine and Feminine Dative Pluralἀληθέσι
Masculine and Feminine Accusative Pluralἀληθεῖς
ἀληθής, true
Neuter Nominative Singularἀληθές
Neuter Genitive Singular(ἀληθέ-ος) ἀληθοῦς
Neuter Dative Singular(ἀληθέ-ϊ) ἀληθεῖ
Neuter Accusative Singularἀληθές
Neuter Vocative Singularἀληθές
Neuter Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dual(ἀληθέ-ε) ἀληθεῖ
Neuter Genitive and Dative Dual(ἀληθέ-οιν) ἀληθοῖν
Neuter Nominative and Vocative Plural(ἀληθέ-α) ἀληθῆ
Neuter Genitive Plural(ἀληθέ-ων) ἀληθῶν
Neuter Dative Pluralἀληθέσι
Neuter Accusative Plural(ἀληθέ-α) ἀληθῆ

427. Review the formation of adjectives of the consonant declension in lesson 27. Most adjective stems in ν are of two endings, like εὐδαίμων. The accent is recessive.

428. Adjectives with stems in ες are of two endings. Cf. the declension of τριήρης in lesson 42.

Grammatical Notes

843. Verbs signifying to be or become and other copulative verbs may have a predicate genitive expressing any of the relations of the attributive genitive (841). Thus, τίνος ἐστὶν ὁ ἵππος; who owns the horse? ὁ Χάλος ἐστὶ τὸ εὖρος πλέθρου, the Chalus is one hundred feet broad, ἦν δὲ καὶ οὗτος τῶν Μίλητον πολιορκούντων, he too was one of these who were besieging Miletus.

855. The objective genitive follows many verbal adjectives. These are chiefly kindred (in meaning or derivation) to verbs which take the genitive. Thus, ἔμπειροι γὰρ ἦσαν τῆς χώρᾱς, they were familiar with the country (845), τῆς χώρᾱς ἐγκρατεῖς, masters or rulers of the land (847), κῶμαι μεσταὶ σίτου, villages abounding in supplies (848).

860. Certain intransitive verbs take the dative, many of which in English may have a direct object without to. The verbs of this class which are not translated with to in English are chiefly those signifying to benefit, serve, obey, defend, assist, please, trust, satisfy, advise, exhort, or any of their opposites; also those expressing friendliness, hostility, blame, abuse, reproach, envy, anger, threats. Thus, οἱ πρόσθεν ἡμῖν βοηθήσαντες, those who have previously helped us, πείθεται τῷ στρατηγῷ, he obeys his commander, πιστεύουσι τῷ Κύρῳ, they trust Cyrus, παρεκελεύοντο ἀλλήλοις, they exhorted one another, ὠργίζοντο ἰσχῡρῶς τῷ Κλεάρχῳ, they were excessively angry with Clearchus.


ἀληθής, ές (cf. ἀλήθεια)unconcealed, true.
ἀσφαλής, έςfree from danger, safe, secure.
ἐγ-κρατής, ές (cf. κράτος)possessed of power, master of.
εὐδαίμων, ονfortunate, happy.
καταφανής, έςin plain sight.
μέλᾱς, μέλαινα, μέλανblack.
ὁμαλής, έςeven, level.
πλήρης, εςfull of, abounding in.
πολυτελής, έςcostly, expensive.
τόπος, ου, ὁplace, region.
φοῖνιξ, ῑκος, ὁpalm tree, palm..


1. οὐκ ἔστι1 πᾶσι δὴ εὐδαίμοσιν εἶναι.
2. οὗτοι δὲ πάντες ὅπλα εἶχον μέλανα.
3. πορεύεσθαι τῆς νυκτὸς οὐκ ἀσφαλὲς ἦν.
4. οἱ Κύρου φίλοι τῆς ἀρχῆς2 τῆς τοῦ πατρὸς ἐγκρατεῖς ἔσονται.
5. ὁ τοῦ σατράπου παράδεισος πλήρης ἐστὶ φοινίκων3.
6. οἱ περὶ Κῦρον Πέρσαι εἶχον χιτῶνας πολυτελεῖς.
7. παρὰ τῇ ὁδῷ ἦν μέλαν τι χωρίον.
8. ἐρωτᾷ τὸν Θρᾷκα εἰ ἀληθῆ ταῦτ᾿ ἐστί.
9. ἐν τούτῳ δὲ τῷ τόπῳ ἦν ἡ γῆ πεδίον ἅπαν ὁμαλὲς ὥσπερ θάλαττα.
10. καὶ ἤδη τε ἦν μέσον ἡμέρᾱς καὶ οὐ καταφανεῖς ἦσαν οἱ πολέμιοι.

NOTES.—1 For the accent, see 166, 3.—2 The objective genitive follows adjectives signifying mastery (855).—3 Adjectives signifying fulness and want, like the corresponding verbs, take the genitive (855).—4 Use ἐν.

432. A Quarrel at the Ford.

ὁ δὲ οἶνος ἐκ τῆς βαλάνου ἐπεποίητο τῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ φοίνῑκος, καὶ ὁ σῖτος μελίνης ἦν· ταύτης γὰρ ἦν ἡ χώρᾱ πλήρης. ἀμφιλέγουσι δέ τι ἐνταῦθα οἵ τε τοῦ Μένωνος στρατιῶται καὶ οἱ Κλεάρχου· καὶ ὁ Κλέαρχος κρίνει ἀδικεῖν τὸν τοῦ Μένωνος καὶ παίει. ὁ δὲ ταῦτα τοῖς φίλοις ἔλεγεν. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται ἐπεὶ ἤκουσαν ἐχαλέπαινον καὶ ὠργίζοντο ἰσχῡρῶς τῷ Κλεάρχῳ.

NOTES.—2. μελίνης: predicate genitive of material (843).— 3. ἀμφιλέγουσί τι: have some dispute.—7. Κλεάρχῳ: the dative object follows verbs signifying anger (860).