LESSON XLII: Stems in σ of the Consonant Declension.


393. Learn the declension of εὖρος, breadth, τριήρης, trireme, and κρέας, meat.

εὖρος, τό. Breadth
Nominative Singularεὖρος
Genitive Singular(εὔρε-ος) εὔρους
Dative Singular(εὔρε-ϊ) εὔρει
Accusative Singularεὖρος
Vocative Singularεὖρος
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dual(εὔρε-ε) εὔρει
Genitive and Dative Dual(εὐρέ-οιν) εὐροῖν
Nominative and Vocative Plural(εὔρε-α) εὔρη
Genitive Pluralεὐρέ-ων εὐρῶν
Dative Pluralεὔρε-σι
Accusative Plural(εὔρε-α) εὔρη
τριήρης, ὴ. Trireme
Nominative Singularτριήρης
Genitive Singular(τριήρε-ος) τριήρους
Dative Singular(τριήρε-ϊ) τριήρει
Accusative Singular(τριήρε-α) τριήρη
Vocative Singularτριῆρες
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dual(τριήρε-ε) τριήρει
Genitive and Dative Dual(τριηρέ-οιν) τριήροιν
Nominative and Vocative Plural(τριήρε-ες) τριήρεις
Genitive Plural(τριηρέ-ων) τριήρων
Dative Pluralτριήρε-σι
Accusative Pluralτριήρεις
κρέας, τό. Meat
Nominative Singularκρέας
Genitive Singular(κρέα-ος) κρέως
Dative Singular(κρέα-ϊ) κρέαι
Accusative Singularκρέας
Vocative Singularκρέας
Nominative and Vocative Plural(κρέα-α) κρέα
Genitive Plural(κρεά-ων) κρεῶν
Dative Pluralκρέα-σι
Accusative Plural(κρέα-α) κρέα

Notes On The Formation Of Nouns With Stems in σ of the Consonant Declension

394. The stem ends in σ (εὐρεσ, τριηρεσ, κρεασ). In masculine and feminine nouns ε in the final syllable of the stem is lengthened to η in the nominative singular (τριήρης); in neuter nouns it is changed to ο in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular (εὖρος).

395. Final σ of the stem is dropped before all case endings, and the vowels thus brought together are contracted. The vocative singular of masculine and feminine nouns is the simple stem. The forms τριήροιν and τριήρων have recessive accent.

Grammatical Notes

812. An attributive adjective, or equivalent expression, which qualifies a noun with the article, commonly stands between the article and the noun. But the noun with the article may be followed by the adjective with the article repeated; here the first article is sometimes omitted. Thus, ἡ Ἑλληνικὴ φυλακή, or ἡ φυλακὴ ἡ Ἑλληνική, or φυλακὴ ἡ Ἑλληνική, the Greek garrison, ἡ εἰς τὸ πεδίον εἰσβολή, or ἡ εἰσβολή ἡ εἰς τὸ πεδίον, or εἰσβολὴ ἡ εἰς τὸ πεδίον, the pass leading into the plain.

815. In Attic prose the article retains its original demonstrative force chiefly in the expression ὁ μέν . . . ὁ δέ, the one . . . the other. ὁ δέ, etc., sometimes means, and he, etc., even when no ὁ μέν precedes. Thus, τοὺς μὲν ἀπέκτεινε, τοὺς δ᾿ ἐξέβαλεν, some he slew, others he banished, οἱ δὲ ταῦτα ἔλεξαν τοῖς στρατιώταις, and they (the generals) told it to the soldiers.

847. The genitive follows verbs signifying to rule, lead, or direct. Thus, τῶν ὁπλῑτῶν ἄρχει, he commands the hoplites, Κλέαρχος τοῦ δεξιοῦ κέρως ἡγεῖται, Clearchus leads the right wing.

856. The genitive follows many adverbs, chiefly adverbs of place and those derived from adjectives which take the genitive. Thus, πέρᾱν τοῦ Εὐφράτου, across the Euphrates, εἴσω τῆς πόλεως, within the city, ἐγγὺς τοῦ παραδείσου, near the park, οἱ ἐμπείρως Κύρου ἔχοντες, those who are acquainted with Cyrus.

866. The dative is used to denote cause, manner, and means or instrument. Thus, φιλίᾳ καὶ εὐνοίᾳ ἐβοήθουν αὐτῷ, they helped him because of their friendship and good will, πορεύονται κύκλῳ, they advance in a circle, αὐτοὺς φοβοῦσι τῇ κραυγῇ, they frighten them by their uproar, βούλεται ἡμῖν χρῆσθαι, he wishes to use (i.e. serve himself by) us, γένει προσήκει βασιλεῖ, in family he is related to the king.

867. The dative of manner is used with comparatives to denote the degree of difference. Thus, πολλῷ μείζων ἐγίγνετο ἡ βοή, the shouting grew much (literally, by much) louder.


ἐπι-λείπωleave behind; intrans., fail.
εὖρος, ους, τόbreadth, width.
κέρας, κέρως and κέρᾱτος, τόhorn of an animal, wing of an army.
κράνος, ους, τόheadpiece, helmet.
κρέας, κρέως, τόflesh; plur.,pieces of flesh, meat.
ὁπλίζω (ὁπλιδ), ὥπλισα, ὥπλισμαι,ὡπλίσθην (cf. ὅπλον)arm, equip..
ὄρος, ους, τόmountain.
πλέθρον, ου, τόa plethrum, a measure of 100 Greek feet.
Σωκράτης, ους, ὁ, VOC. ΣώκρατεσSocrates, the celebrated philosopher.
τεῖχος, ους, τόwall, fort.
Τισσαφέρνης, ους, ὁ, acc. Τισσαφέρνην, voc. Τισσαφέρνηof A–Decl., Tissaphernes.
τριήρης, ους, ἡtrireme, war vessel, with three banks of oars.


1. εἶχε δὲ καὶ τριήρεις ὁ Κῦρος.
2. τούτου τοῦ ποταμοῦ τὸ εὖρός ἐστι πέντε πλέθρα.
3. καὶ ἐκέλευε Κλέαρχον τοῦ δεξιοῦ κέρως1 ἡγεῖσθαι.
4. τὸ δὲ Μένωνος στράτευμα ἤδη ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ ἦν εἴσω τῶν ὀρέων2.
5. ὡπλισμένοι ἦσαν θώρᾱξι3 καὶ κράνεσι3 πάντες.
6. ἐντεῦθεν ἐπορεύθησαν πρὸς τεῖχος ἔρημον.
7. Ξενοφῶν τὴν ἐπιστολὴν ἔπεμψε Σωκράτει.
8. τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς ὁ μὲν σῖτος ἐπέλειπε, κρέα δ᾿ ἔτι εἶχον.
9. ἦν δὲ ταῦτα τείχη,4 καὶ τὸ μὲν5 εἶχε Κιλίκων φυλακή, τὸ δὲ5 Ἀρταξέρξου ἐλέγετο φυλακὴ φυλάττειν.
10. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἦσαν ἐπὶ ταῖς θύραις ταῖς Τισσαφέρνους,6 οἱ στρατηγοὶ παρεκλήθησαν εἴσω.

NOTES.—1 The genitive follows ἡγέομαι, but not ἄγω, which is an important exception to the general rule (847). —2The genitive follows the adverb of place (856).—3 Dative of instrument (866). —4 The predicate; ταῦτα is the subject. —5the one . . . the other. See 815. —6 For the position of the genitive, see 812. —7 Dative (865).

399. Great Hardships in the Desert.

οἱ δ᾿ ἐν τούτῳ τῷ τόπῳ ἄνθρωποι ὄνους ἀλέτᾱς παρὰ τὸν ποταμὸν ὀρύττοντες καὶ ποιοῦντες εἰς Βαβυλῶνα ἦγον καὶ ἐπώλουν καὶ ἀνταγοράζοντες σῖτον ἔζων. τὸ δὲ στράτευμα ὁ σῖτος ἐπέλειπε, καὶ ἀγοράζεσθαι οὐκ ἦν εἰ μὴ ἐν τῇ Λῡδίᾳ ἀγορᾷ ἐν τῷ Κύρου βαρβαρικῷ. καὶ τίμιος ἦν ὁ σῖτος· κρέα οὖν ἐσθίουσιν οἱ στρατιῶται. τούτων πολλοὺς δὲ τῶν σταθμῶν πάνυ μακροὺς ἤλαυνε Κῦρος· πολλάκις γὰρ ἔδει μακρὰν πορεύεσθαι πρὸς χόρτον.

NOTES.—1. ὄνους ἀλέτᾱς: upper millstones, which were turned sometimes by hand, sometimes by a beast. —2. ποιοῦντες: by contraction for ποιέοντες. —3. ἔζων: see ζάω. —4. ἦν: was possible. — 7. πολλούς: many, accusative plural masculine. The follwing μακρούς modifies this as a predicate adjective, many of these marches that Cyrus made were very long. —8. μακράν: sc. ὁδόν, a long way.