LESSON XXXIII: Subjunctive Active (continued). Subjunctive in Exhortations and in Final Clauses.

The present subjunctive of εἰμί

322. Learn the conjugation of the present subjunctive of εἰμί.

The Present Active Subjunctive of εἰμί
First Person Singular
Second Person Singularᾖς
Third Person Singular
Second Person Dualἦτον
Third Person Dualἦτον
First Person Pluralὦμεν
Second Person Pluralἦτε
Third Person Pluralὦσι

The Subjunctive in Exhortations

324. The subjunctive can be used to express exhortation; The first person of the subjunctive (generally plural) is used in exhortations. If the exhortation is negative, μή, not, is used.

323. Examples:

1. τὸν ξένον τῑμήσωμεν, let us honor our guest.

2. μὴ λύσωμεν τὴν γέφῡραν, let us not destroy the bridge.

The Subjunctive in Final Clauses

326. Clauses which denote purpose are called final clauses. These clauses are introduced by the final particles ἵνα, ὡς, or ὅπως, and take the subjunctive after primary tenses. The negative is μή.

325. Examples:

1. τὴν γέφῡραν λύσομεν, ἵνα (also ὡς or ὅπως) τοὺς πολεμίους κωλύσωμεν, we will destroy the bridge, that we may check the enemy.

2. τοῦτον ἀπάγομεν, ἵνα μὴ (also ὡς μή, or ὅπως μή, or simply μή) κακῶς τοὺς φίλους ποιήσῃ, we are leading him away, that he may not do our friends harm.

The subordinate clauses here express purpose and take the subjunctive; they are introduced by the final particle ἵνα (also ὡς or ὅπως), that, in order that, or, if negative, by ἵνα μή (also ὡς μή, or ὅπως μή, or simply μή), that not, in order that not. The verb of the principal clause is in a primary (50) tense.


837. The accusative follows the adverbs of swearing νή and μά, by. An oath introduced by νή is affirmative; one introduced by μά is negative. Thus, νὴ Δία, yes, by Zeus! μὰ τοὺς θεοὺς οὐκ αὐτοὺς διώξω, by Heaven, I will not pursue them!

838. Verbs signifying to ask, demand, teach, remind, clothe, unclothe, conceal, deprive, and take away may take two object accusatives. Thus, ἡγεμόνα αἰτεῖτε Κῦρον, ask Cyrus for a guide, τοὺς παῖδας σωφροσύνην διδάσκουσι, they teach the lads self-control, ἀναμνήσω γὰρ ὑμᾶς τοὺς κινδύνους, I will remind you of the dangers, τὰ χρήματα Κῦρον οὐκ ἔκρυπτε, he did not conceal his possessions from Cyrus, τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀπεστερήκαμεν τὴν ναῦν, we have robbed the men of their ship.


αἰτέω, αἰτήσω etc., ask, ask for, demand.
ἀκούω, ἀκούσομαι, ἤκουσα, ἀκήκοα, ἠκούσθηνhear, learn, of , give heed to.
ἀπ-ελαύνωdrive away; intrans., ride, march, or go away.
ἐάω, ἐάσω, εἴᾱσα, εἵᾱκα, εἵᾱμαι, εἴᾱμαι, εἰάθην (274)permit, allow, let go.
ἐκεῖ (cf. ἐκεῖνος)adv., in that place, there.
ἐλαύνω (ἐλα), ἐλῶ, ἤλασα, ἐλήλακα, ἐλήλαμαι, ἠλάθηνdrive; intrans., drive, ride, march.
κωλύω, κωλύσω etc., hinder, prevent, check.
οὐδέ (οὐ+δέ)neg. conj., but not, and not, nor yet, nor; as adv., not even, not at all.
συγ-καλέωcall together, summon.
φεύγω (φυγ), φεύξομαι and φευξοῦμαι, ἔφυγον, πέφευγαflee, run away, flee from, flee one’s country, be an exile.


1. μὴ τοῦτον ἐάσωμεν φεύγειν.
2. πάντας ὠφελεῖν πειρᾶται, ἵνα αὐτῷ φίλοι ὦσι.
3. διὰ τοῦ πεδίου ἐλαύνωμεν.
4. Κῦρον αἰτοῦσι1 πλοῖα, ὡς τοὺς πελταστὰς ἀποπέμψωσι.
5. πολεμήσωμεν οὖν τοῖς βαρβάροις,2 ἵνα μὴ τοὺς φίλους κακῶς ποιήσωσιν.
6. ἐὰν δὲ ὁ σατράπης ᾖ ἐπὶ τῷ Εὐφράτῃ ποταμῷ, ἀπελῶ.
7. ἢν δὲ φεύγῃ, ἐκεῖ πρὸς ταῦτα βουλευσόμεθα.
8. οὐδ᾿ ἐὰν ταῦτ᾿ ἀκούσῃ, συγκαλεῖ τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς.
9. μὴ κωλύωμεν τὸ Κύρου στράτευμα ἀπελαύνειν.

NOTES.——1 Verbs signifying to ask take two object accusatives (838).——2 Cf. 293, 10.

330. Xenias and Pasion Desert.

ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει διὰ Συρίᾱς εἰς Μυρίανδον· ἐμπόριο? δ᾿ ἐστὶ τὸ χωρίον ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάττῃ, καὶ οἰκεῖται ὑπὸ Φοινίκων. ἐνταῦθα μένουσιν ἡμέρᾱς ἑπτά· καὶ Ξενίᾱς καὶ Πᾱσίων πλοῖον λαβόντες καὶ τὰ χρήματα ἀποπλέουσι, χαλεπαίνοντες ὅτι Κῦρος τὸν Κλέαρχον εἴᾱ τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς αὐτῶν ἔχειν. Κῦρος δὲ συνεκάλεσε τοὺς στρατηγοὺς καὶ ἔλεξε τάδε· “Ἀπολελοίπᾱσιν ἡμᾶς (us) Ξενίᾱς καὶ Πᾱσίων. ἀλλὰ μὰ τοὺς θεοὺς οὐκ αὐτοὺς διώξω, οὐδὲ αὐτοὺς κακῶς ποιήσω.” οἱ δ᾿ ἄλλοι στρατηγοὶ ἐπεὶ ἤκουσαν τὴν Κύρου ἀρετήν, ἡδέως συνεπορεύοντο.

NOTES.——2. οἰκεῖται: passive, is inhabited.——4. λαβόντες: having taken, second aorist active participle of λαμβάνω, declined like ἑκών (752), λαβών, λαβοῦσα, λαβόν, etc.——8. θεούς: accusative in a negative oath (837).