# LESSON XXII. Perfect and Pluperfect Indicative Middle and Passive of Labial Mute Verbs.

208. Learn the conjugation of the perfect and pluperfect indicative middle and passive of λείπω, leave.

Perfect Indicative Middle of λείπω
First Person Singular(λελειπ-μαι) λέλειμ-μαι
Second Person Singular(λελειπ-σαι) λέλειψαι
Third Person Singular(λελειπ-ται) λέλειπ-ται
Second Person Dual(λελειπ-σθον) λέλειφ-θον
Third Person Dual(λελειπ-σθον) λέλειφ-θον
First Person Plural(λελειπ-μεθα) λελείμ-μεθα
Second Person Plural(λελειπ-σθε) λέλειφ-θε
Third Person Plural(λελειπ-μενοι) λελειμ-μένοι εἰσί
Pluperfect Indicative Middle of λείπω
First Person Singular(ἐ-λελειπ-μην) ἐ-λελείμ-μην
Second Person Singular(ἐ-λελειπ-σο) ἐ-λέλειψο
Third Person Singular(ἐ-λελειπ-το) ἐ-λέλειπ-το
Second Person Dual(ἐ-λελειπ-σθον) ἐ-λέλειφ-θον
Third Person Dual(ἐ-λελειπ-σθον) ἐ-λελείφ-θην
First Person Plural(ἐ-λελειπ-μεθα) ἐ-λελείμ-μεθα
Second Person Plural(ἐ-λελειπ-σθε) ἐ-λέλειφ-θε
Third Person Plural(λελειπ-μενοι) λελειμ-μένοι ἦσαν

## Notes on the formation of the Perfect and Pluperfect Indicative with Labial Stems

209. The concurrence of consonants in the stem and endings (note the forms in parenthesis) occasions euphonic changes, according to the following principle:

1. A labial mute (π β φ) before μ changes to μ; with σ it forms ψ; before τ and θ it becomes (or remains) respectively π and φ.

a. When μμμ would thus result, one μ is dropped, as πέμπω, send, πέπεμ-μαι (πεπεμπ-μαι), πέπεμψαι, πέπεμπ-ται, etc.

2. σ between two consonants is dropped.

210. The third person plural of the perfect and pluperfect is a compound form, consisting of the perfect middle or passive participle and εἰσί in the perfect, and of this participle and ἦσαν in the pluperfect.

## 212. VOCABULARY.

 ἅμα adv., at the same time. ἀριθμός, οῦ, ὁ number, enumeration. δένδρον, ου, τό tree. κατά prep.: with gen., down from; with acc., down along, over, by. κατα-λείπω leave behind, abandon. κατα-κόπτω cut down or in pieces. κόπτω (κοπ), κόψω, ἔκοψα, κέκοφα, κέκομμαι, ἐκόπην cut, fell. λείπω (λιπ), λείψω, ἔλιπον, λέλοιπα, λέλειμμαι, ἐλείφθην leave. Πρόξενος, ου, ὁ Proxenus. τριάκοντα indeclinable, thirty. χίλιοι, αι, α 1000.

## 213. READ ALOUD AND TRANSLATE:

 1. καταλελειμμένοι εἰσὶ τριάκοντα τοξόται; 2. ἅμα δὲ ἐπέπεμψο, ὦ Πρόξενε, ἐπὶ τὴν γέφῦραν. 3. κατακέκοπται τοῖς πολεμίοις1 ἡ στρατιά. 4. ὁπλῖται χίλιοι πεπεμμένοι ἦσαν κατὰ θάλατταν. 5. ὀλίγοι τῶν Κύρου φίλων καταλελειμμένοι ἦσαν. 6. λελειμμένοι ἦσαν οἱ στρατιῶται. 7. ἐκ ταύτης τῆς κώμης ἄγγελος ἐπέπεμπτο πρὸς Κῦρον. 8. τὰ δένδρα κέκοπται. 9. Κῦρος ἀποπέπεμπται2 τὸν ἄγγελον. 10. τοὺς ὁπλίτᾶς μεταπεπέμμεθα ἐκ τῆς Φρυγίᾶς.

NOTES.—1 The agent (203).—2Middle.—3 For the order, cf. 213, 2.

## 215. A Thirty Day’s Halt, and Enumeration of the Troops.

ἔστι δὲ καὶ Ἀρταξέρξου βασίλεια ἐν Κελαιναῖς ἐρυμνὰ ἐπὶ ταῖς πηγαῖς τοῦ Μαρσύου ποταμοῦ· ῥεῖ δὲ καὶ οὗτος διὰ Κελαινῶν.

ἐνταῦθα μένει Κῦρος ἡμέρᾱς τριάκοντα· καὶ ἧκε Κλέαρχος ἔχων ὁπλίτᾱς χῑλίους καὶ τοξότᾱς. ἅμα δὲ καὶ Σοφαίνετος παρῆν ἔχων ὁπλίτᾱς χῑλίους. καὶ ἐνταῦθα Κῦρος ἀριθμὸν τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν στρατιωτῶν ἐποίησεν ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ, καὶ ἦσαν ὁπλῖται μὲν μύριοι καὶ χίλιοι, πελτασταὶ δὲ δισχίλιοι.

NOTES.—1. ἔστι: for the accent, see 166, 1.—9. δισχίλιοι: the numeral adverb δίς means twice.