LESSON XX: Aorist, Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative Middle.

The use of the Future Perfect Indicative Middle

182. The future perfect indicative denotes that an action will be already finished at some future time, as λελύσομαι, I shall have ransomed. This tense is not found in the active voice.


183. Learn the conjugation of the first aorist, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative middle of λύω.

First Aorist Indicative Middle of λύω
First Person Singularἐ-λῡσά-μην
Second Person Singularἐ-λύσω
Third Person Singularἐ-λύσα-το
Second Person Dualἐ-λύσα-σθον
Third Person Dualἐ-λῡσά-σθην
First Person Pluralἐ-λῡσά-μεθα
Second Person Pluralἐ-λύσα-σθε
Third Person Pluralἐλύσα-ντο
Perfect Indicative Middle of λύω
First Person Singularλέλυ-μαι
Second Person Singularλέλυ-σαι
Third Person Singularλέλυ-ται
Second Person Dualλέλυ-σθον
Third Person Dualλέλυ-σθον
First Person Pluralλελύ-μεθα
Second Person Pluralλέλυ-σθε
Third Person Pluralλέλυ-νται
Pluperfect Indicative Middle of λύω
First Person Singularἐ-λελύ-μην
Second Person Singularἐ-λέλυ-σο
Third Person Singularἐ-λέλυ-το
Second Person Dualἐ-λέλυ-σθον
Third Person Dualἐ-λελύ-σθην
First Person Pluralἐ-λελύ-μεθα
Second Person Pluralἐ-λέλυ-σθε
Third Person Pluralἐ-λέλυ-ντο
Future Perfect Indicative Middle of λύω
First Person Singularλελύσο-μαι
Second Person Singularλελύσει
Third Person Singularλελύσε-ται
Second Person Dualλελύσε-σθον
Third Person Dualλελύσε-σθον
First Person Pluralλελῡσό-μεθα
Second Person Pluralλελύσε-σθε
Third Person Pluralλελύσο-νται

Notes on the Aorist, Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative Middle.

184. The first aorist middle uses the first aorist stem λῡσα (148).

185. The perfect and pluperfect middle use the perfect middle stem λελυ, formed simply by reduplicating the verb stem. The pluperfect has augment.

186. The future perfect uses the perfect middle stem with σ ο/ε added, λελῡσο/ε. A short final vowel is always lengthened before σ ο/ε.

187. For the personal endings, see 175. The forms ἐλύσω and λελύσει are shortened forms of ἐλῡσα-σο and λελῡσ-σαι.

(The perfect and pluperfect middle and passive of mute verbs are reserved for Lessons XXII. and XXIII.)

Grammar Notes

849. The genitive (as ablative) may denote that from which anything is separated or distinguished. On this principle the genitive follows verbs denoting to remove, restrain, release, cease, fail, differ, give up, and the like. Thus, διέσχον ἀλλήλων ὡς τριάκοντα στάδια, they were about thirty furlongs distant from one another, ἐπέσχον τῆς πορείᾱς, they desisted from marching, πολέμου ἡδέως παύσεται, he will be glad to stop fighting.

836. The accusative may denote extent of time or space. Thus, ἐνταῦθα μένει ἡμέρᾱς ἑπτά, he remained there a week, ἐπορεύοντο σταθμοὺς πέντε, they proceeded five days’ journey.


ἄκρος, ᾱ, ονat the top, topmost; ἄκρον, neut. as noun, summit.
ἀπο-πέμπωsend off or away; mid., send away from oneself, dismiss.
ἡδέωςadv., gladly.
ὀλίγος, η, ονlittle, small; plur., few.
ὅλος, η, ονwhole, entire.
παράprep.: with gen., from beside, from; with dat., beside, with, at; with acc., to the side of, to, near, by.
παρασκευή, ῆς, ἡpreparation, equipment.
πάρ-ειμιbe beside or present.
παύω, παύσω, ἔπαυσα, πέπαυκα, πέπαυμαιcause to cease, stop; mid., cease, desist.
πέντεindeclinable, five.
σταθμός, οῦ, ὁstopping- place, stage, day’s march.
Φρυγίᾱ, ᾱς, ἡPhrygia.


1. πεπόρευνται παρὰ τὸν Κῦρον.
2. οὗτος τοῦ πρὸς τοὺς βαρβάρους πολέμου1 ἡδέως πεπαύσεται.
3. τόν τε στρατηγὸν καὶ τὸν σατράπην ἀπεπέμψατο.
4. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται ἐπεπόρευντο σταθμοὺς2 πέντε διὰ φιλίᾱς χώρᾱς.
5. ὀλίγοι τῶν στρατιωτῶν τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἠγοράσαντο.
6. οἱ ὁπλῖται πεπόρευνται ἐπὶ τὸ ἄκρον.
7. καὶ ὁ σατράπης μετεπέμψατο ἵππους καὶ ὅπλα καὶ τὴν ἄλλην παρασκευὴν εἰς Φρυγίᾱν.
8. οἱ πολέμιοι οὐκ ἐπαύσαντο τῆς κραυγῆς διὰ ὅλης τῆς ἡμέρᾱς.
9. ἐπεὶ δὲ καὶ οὗτοι παρῆσαν, ἐστρατεύσατο Κῦρος εἰς τὴν τῶν πολεμίων χώρᾱν.

NOTES.—1 from war, a genitive of separation (849).—2 Accusative of extent of space (836).

191. Tissaphernes warns the King. The March begins.

οὗτοι μὲν παρῆσαν αὐτῷ εἰς Σάρδεις. Τισσαφέρνης δὲ ἐπορεύετο παρὰ τὸν Ἀρταξέρξην· οὐ γὰρ ἐνόμιζε τὴν παρασκευὴν ταύτην εἶναι ἐπὶ Πῑσίδᾱς. καὶ Ἀρταξέρξης, ἐπεὶ ταῦτ᾿ ἔλεξε Τισσαφέρνης, ἀντιπαρασκευάζεται.

Κῦρος δὲ ἔχων τούτους τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς ἐξελαύνει ἀπὸ Σάρδεων διὰ τῆς Λῡδίᾱς σταθμοὺς τρεῖς (trēs) ἐπὶ τὸν Μαίανδρον ποταμόν. ἐπὶ δὲ τούτῳ γέφῡρα ἐπῆν. ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει διὰ Φρυγίᾱς εἰς Κολοσσάς.

NOTES.— 1. Σάρδεις: Sardis, accusative plural. The genitive plural Σάρδεων occurs in 6.— 3. εἶναι: to be, present infinitive of εἰμί. Translate, that it was, etc.— 5. ἔχων: having, present participle, = with.— ἐξ-ελαύνει: the verb ἐλαύνω here means march. Use the map in following the route of the expedition.— 7. ἐπ-ῆν: imperfect of ἔπ-ειμι, be on or over.