fever, and is a dangerous disease, in which the bowel
is ulcerated, with the passing of blood. See περὶ
παθῶν 23 and 25 (Littré VI. 234, 235), and more
especially περὶ διαίτης2 74 (Littré IV. 616) :--
τοῦτο γὰρ (διάρροια) ὀνομάζεται ἕως2 ἂν αν̓τὴ μόνη
σαπεῖσα ἡ τροφὴ ὑποχωρῆ. ὁκόταν δὲ θερμαινομένου τοῦ
σώματος κάθαρσις δριμέα γένηται, τό τε ἔντερον ξύεται
καὶ ἑλκοῦται καὶ διαχωρεῖται αἱματώδεα, τοῦτο δὲ δυσεντερίη
καλεῖται, νόσος χαλεπὴ καὶ ἐπικίνδυνος.
"Dysentery" would include what is now called
by this name and any severe intestinal trouble,
perhaps typhoid and paratyphoid if these were
diseases of the Greek world, while "diarrhoea"
means merely undue laxity of the bowels.
The Hippocratic collection is rich in words
meaning delirium of various kinds. It is probable,
if not certain, that each of them had its own
associations and its own shade of meaning, but
these are now to a great extent lost. Only the
broad outlines of the differences between them can
be discerned by the modern reader. The words fall
into two main classes :--
(1) Those in which the mental derangement of
delirium is the dominant idea ; e.g. παραφέρομαι,
παραφρονῶ (the word common in Prognostic), παρανοῶ,
παρακρούω (the most common word in Epidemics I.
and III.), παρακοπή, ἐκμαίνομαι, μανία.
(2) Those in which stress is laid upon delirious
talk; e.g. λῆρος, παράληρος, παραληρῶ, παραλέγω, λόγοι