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ON THE NATURAL FACULTIES Book I
[p. 39]alteration prepare the nutriment suitable for each part; others separate out the superfluities; some pass these along, others store them up, others excrete them; some, again, are paths for the transit
Transit, cf. p. 6, note 1.
in all directions of the utilisable juices. So, if you wish to gain a thorough acquaintance with all the faculties of Nature,
i.e. of the living organism,cf. p. 2, note 1.
you will have consider each one of these organs.
Now in giving an account of these we must begin with those effects of Nature, together with their corresponding parts and faculties, which are closely connected with the purpose to be achieved.
i.e. with nutrition.
Let us once more, then, recall the actual purpose for which Nature has constructed all these parts. Its name, as previously stated, is nutrition, and the definition corresponding to the name is: an assimilation of that which nourishes to that which receives nourishment.
We might perhaps say, more shortly, "assimilation of food to feeder," or, "of food to fed"; Linacre reanders, "nutrimenti cum nutrito assimilatio."
And in order that this may come about, we must assume a preliminary process of adhesion,
Lit. prosphysis, i.e. attachment, implantation.
and for that, again, one of presentation.
Lit. prosthesis, "apposition." One is almost tempted to retain the terms prosthesis and prosphysis in translation, as they obviously correspond much more closely to Galen's physiological conceptions than any English or semi-English words can.
For whenever the juice which is destined to nourish any of the parts of the animal is emitted from the vessels, it is in the first place dispersed all through this part, next it is presented, and next it adheres, and becomes completely assimilated.