De Medicina

De Medicina
By Celsus
Edited by: W. G. Spencer (trans.)

Cambridge, Massachusetts Harvard University Press 1971 (Republication of the 1935 edition).

Digital Hippocrates Collection Table of Contents

Celsus On Medicine

Book I

Book II

Book III

Book IV

Book V

Book VI

Book VII


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Book IV

 [p. 357] breathe, and, when we swallow food and drink, closes the windpipe. Now the actual windpipe is rigid and gristly; in the throat it is prominent, in the remaining parts it is depressed. It consists of certain little rings, arranged after the likeness of those vertebrae which are in the spine, but in such a way that whilst rough on the outer surface, the inside is smooth like the gullet; descending to the praecordia, it makes a junction with the lung.

The lung is spongy, and so can take in the breath, and at the back it is joined to the spine itself, and it is divided like the hoof of an ox into two lobes. To the lung is attached the heart, which, muscular in nature, is placed under the left breast, and has two small stomach-like pockets. Now, under the heart and lung is a transverse partition of strong membrane, which separates the belly from the praecordia; it is sinewy, and many blood-vessels also take their course through it; it separates from the parts above not only the intestines but also the liver and the spleen. These organs are placed against it but under it, on the right and left sides respectively.

The liver, which starts from the actual partition under the praecordia on the right side, is concave within, convex without; its projecting part rest lightly on the stomach, and it is divided into four lobes. Outside its lower part the gall-bladder adheres to it: but the spleen to the left is not connected to the same partition, but to the intestine; in texture it is soft and loose, moderately long and thick; and it hardly projects at all from beneath the ribs into the belly, but is hidden under them for the most