LESSON 9: O-Declension (continued).

Declension of the Definite Article

81. Learn the declension of the definite article.

The vocative does not occur. Greek, like Latin, has no indefinite article.

ὁ, ἡ, τό. (Masculine Definite Article)
Masculine Nominative Singular
Masculine Genitive Singularτοῦ
Masculine Dative Singularτῷ
Masculine Accusative Singularτόν
Masculine Nominative and Accusative Dualτώ
Masculine Genitive and Dative Dualτοῖν
Masculine Nominative Pluralοἱ
Masculine Genitive Pluralτῶν
Masculine Dative Pluralτοῖς
Masculine Accusative Pluralτούς
ὁ, ἡ, τό. (Feminine Definite Article)
Feminine Nominative Singular
Feminine Genitive Singularτῆς
Feminine Dative Singularτῇ
Feminine Accusative Singularτήν
Feminine Nominative and Accusative Dualτώ
Feminine Genitive and Dative Dualτοῖν
Feminine Nominative Pluralαἱ
Feminine Genitive Pluralτῶν
Feminine Dative Pluralταῖς
Feminine Accusative Pluralτάς
ὁ, ἡ, τό. (Neuter Definite Article)
Neuter Nominative Singularτό
Neuter Genitive Singularτοῦ
Neuter Dative Singularτῷ
Neuter Accusative Singularτό
Neuter Nominative and Accusative Dualτώ
Neuter Genitive and Dative Dualτοῖν
Neuter Nominative Pluralτά
Neuter Genitive Pluralτῶν
Neuter Dative Pluralτοῖς
Neuter Accusative Pluralτά


οῖνος, ὁ (Wine)
Nominative Singularοἶνος
Genitive Singularοἴνου
Dative Singularοἴνῳ
Accusative Singularοἶνον
Vocative Singularοἶνε
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualοἴνω
Genitive and Dative Dualοἴνοιν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralοἶνοι
Genitive Pluralοἴνων
Dative Pluralοἴνοις
Accusative Pluralοἴνους
ἡ στενὴ ὁδός (The Narrow Road)
Nominative Singularἡ στενὴ ὁδός
Genitive Singularτῆς στενῆς ὁδοῦ
Dative Singularτῇ στενῇ ὁδῷ
Accusative Singularτὴν στενὴν ὁδόν
Vocative Singularστενὴ ὁδέ
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualτὼ στενὰ ὁδώ
Genitive and Dative Dualτοῖν στεναῖν ὁδοῖν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralαἱ στεναὶ ὁδοί
Genitive Pluralτῶν στενῶν ὁδῶν
Dative Pluralταῖς στεναῖς ὁδοῖς
Accusative Pluralτὰς στενὰς ὁδούς
πλοῖον μακρόν (A Long Boat)
Nominative Singularπλοῖον μακρόν
Genitive Singularπλοίου μακροῦ
Dative Singularπλοίῳ μακρῷ
Accusative Singularπλοῖον μακρόν
Vocative Singularπλοῖον μακρόν
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualπλοίω μακρώ
Genitive and Dative Dualπλοίοιν μακροῖν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralπλοῖα μακρά
Genitive Pluralπλοίων μακρῶν
Dative Pluralπλοίοις μακροῖς
Accusative Pluralπλοῖα μακρά

a. Adjectives agree with their nouns not only in case and number but also in gender. See the Rule of Syntax in 805. The adjective, therefore, may be of the A-Declension while the noun is of the O-Declension, as in ἡ στενὴ ὁδός above.

b. A postpositive word is one which is never placed first in its sentence, but generally second.


Κῦρος, ου, ὁCyrus.
ὁδός, οῦ, ἡroad, way.
οἷνος, ου, ὁwine
ποταμός, οῦ, ὁriver.
στρατηγός, οῦ, ὁgeneral.
φανερός, ά, όνadj., in plain sight, visible, evident.
θηρίον, ου, τόwild beast.
ὅπλον, ου, τόimplement, Plur.arms..
πλοῖον, ου, τόboat..
τόξον, ου, τόbow..
ὁ, ἡ, τόthe def. art., the.
interj. with voc., O.
δέconj., but, and (a postpositive).


1. στενὴ ἡ ὁδός.
2. ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ ἦν1 θηρία.
3. τὰ πλοῖα μακρὰ ἦν.1
4. ἐπὶ τῷ ποταμῷ ἦν ὁ στρατηγός.
5. τόξα δέ, ὦ Κῦρε, οὐκ ἔχομεν.
6. ὁδὸς φανερὸς ἄγει εἰς τὰς τοῦ Κύρου κώμᾱς.
7. εἰς τὸ πεδίον ὁ στρατηγὸς ἔπεμπε τοὺς ἵππους.
8. τῷ στρατηγῷ οἶνον Κῦρος ἔπεμπε.
9. ἡ ὁδός, ὦ Κῦρε, ἄγει εἰς πεδίον καλόν.
10. ἦγον οἱ ἵπποι καὶ τοὺς στρατηγοὺς καὶ τὰ ὅπλα.

NOTES.—1 A neuter Plural subject in Greek regularly has its verb in the singular. See the Rule of Syntax in 802.—2 πλοῖα μακρά. Cf. Latin. nᾱyuēs longae..