LESSON LXXVIII: Second Perfect System without Tense Suffix.

The Conjugation of ἵστημι

717. A few verbs have second perfects and pluperfects formed without tense suffix, after the analogy of verbs in μι, the personal endings being added directly to the verb stem.

718. Learn the conjugation of the second perfect system without tense suffix of ἵστημι.

Perfect Active Indicative of ἵστημι, SET
First Person Singularἔ-στα-κα
Second Person Singularἔ-στα-κας
Third Person Singularἔ-στα-κε
First Person Pluralἔ-στα-μεν
Second Person Pluralἔ-στα-τε
Third Person Pluralἔ-στα-σι(ν)
Perfect Active Subjunctive of ἵστημι, SET
First Person Singularἑ-στῶ
Second Person Singularἑ-στῇς
Third Person Singularἑ-στῇ
First Person Pluralἑ-στῶ-μεν
Second Person Pluralἑ-στῆ-τε
Third Person Pluralἑ-στῶ-σι(ν)
Perfect Active Optative of ἵστημι, SET
First Person Singularἑ-σταίη-ν
Second Person Singularἑ-σταίη-ς
Third Person Singularἑ-σταίη
First Person Pluralἑ-σταῖ-μεν
Second Person Pluralἑ-σταῖ-τε
Third Person Pluralἑ-σταῖε-ν

Notes on the Conjugation of ἵστημι

719. 1. The indicative singular does not occur. The first perfect endings are used instead. The participle ἑστώς (for ἑ-στα-ώς) is declined ἑστώς, ἑστῶσα, ἑστός, genitive ἑστῶτος, ἑστώσης, ἑστῶτος, etc.

2. Other verbs have forms in the second perfect without suffix. Thus, βαίνω (βα), go, βεβᾶσι, they have gone, participle βεβώς; θνῄσκω (θαν), die, τεθνᾶσι, they are dead, participle τεθνεώς; δέδια (δε), fear (cf. δέδοικα), δεδίᾶσι, they fear, participle δεδιώς.

The Conjugation of οἶδα (ἰδ,εἰδ), know

720. Here belongs also the irregular verb in μι, οἶδα (ἰδ, εἰδ), know, a second perfect with present force, formed without reduplication, the pluperfect (as imperfect) being ᾔδη or ᾔδειν.

721. Learn the conjugation of οἶδα.

Perfect Active Indicative of οἶδα, KNOW
First Person Singularοἶδα
Second Person Singularοἶσθα
Third Person Singularοἶδε
Second Person Dualἴστον
Third Person Dualἴστον
First Person Pluralἴσμεν
Second Person Pluralἴστε
Third Person Pluralἴσᾱσι
Pluperfect Active Indicative of οἶδα, KNOW
First Person Singularᾔδη or ᾔδειν
Second Person Singularᾔδησθα or ᾔδεισθα
Third Person Singularᾔδει or ᾔδειν
Second Person Dualᾖστον
Third Person Dualᾔστην
First Person Pluralᾖσμεν
Second Person Pluralᾖστε
Third Person Pluralᾖσαν or ᾔδεσαν
Perfect Active Subjunctive of οἶδα, KNOW
First Person Singularεἰδῶ
Second Person Singularεἰδῇς
Third Person Singularεἰδῇ
Second Person Dualεἰδῆτον
Third Person Dualεἰδῆτον
First Person Pluralεἰδῶμεν
Second Person Pluralεἰδῆτε
Third Person Pluralεἰδῶσι
Perfect Active Optative of οἶδα, KNOW
First Person Singularεἰδείην
Second Person Singularεἰδείης
Third Person Singularεἰδείη
Second Person Dualεἰδεῖτον
Third Person Dualεἰδείτην
First Person Pluralεἰδεῖμεν or εἰδείημεν
Second Person Pluralεἰδεῖτε or εἰδείητε
Third Person Pluralεἰδεῖεν or εἰδείησαν


Ἀρκάς, άδος, ὁan Arcadian.
καίπερconj., although, used with the concessive participle.
μισθο-φορά, ᾶς, ἡ (cf. μισθο-φόρος)pay.
οἶδα, εἴσομαιknow, know of.
οἴχομαι, οἰχήσομαιpres. with perf. force, have gone, be gone.
προ-διαβαίνωcross first.
προ-ελαύνωride forward, push on.
πώadv., yet, up to this time (enclitic).
συμμαχίᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ (cf. σύμ-μαχος)alliance.
σύν-οιδαshare in knowledge, be conscious.


1. οὐκ ἴστε ὅ τι ποιεῖτε.
2. οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι ἕστασαν, ἀποροῦντες τῷ πράγματι1.
3. οἱ πολέμιοι οὐκ ἴσᾱσί πω τὴν ἡμετέρᾱν συμμαχίᾱν.
4. τοὺς προδιαβεβῶτας λαβὼν ᾤχετο.
5. δεδίᾱσι τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς οἱ τὴν μισθοφορὰν ὑπεσχημένοι2.
6. ἄνδρες στρατιῶται, τῶν Ἀρκάδων οἱ μὲν3 τεθνᾶσιν, οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ ἐπὶ γηλόφου τινὸς πολιορκοῦνται.
7. πάρεστι δὲ ὁ σατράπης βουλόμενος εἰδέναι τί πρᾱχθήσεται.
8. οὐ γὰρ ᾔδεσαν οἱ Ἕλληνες Κῦρον τεθνηκότα,4 ἀλλ᾿ εἴκαζον ἢ διώκοντα οἴχεσθαι5 ἢ καταληψόμενόν τι προεληλακέναι5.
9. τῷ δὲ ἀνδρὶ6 πείσομαι, ἵνα εἰδῆτε ὅτι καὶ ἄρχεσθαι ἐπίσταμαι.
10. Ὀρόντᾱν προσεκύνησαν, καίπερ εἰδότες ὅτι ἐπὶ θάνατον ἄγοιτο.
11. οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι ἐφέστασαν ἔξω τῶν δένδρων· οὐ γὰρ ἦν ἀσφαλὲς ἐν τοῖς δένδροις ἑστάναι.
12. σύνοιδα γὰρ ἐμαυτῷ πάντα7 ἐψευσμένος8 αὐτόν.

NOTES.—1 Dative of cause (866).—2 those who have promised (487, 3 and 4).—3 some (815). Here in the second member we have a fuller expression οἱ λοιποί, the rest, for οἱ δέ, others.4 Participle in indirect discourse (628). The original thought was Κῦρος τέθνηκε (first perfect).— 5 Infinitive in indirect discourse (469). Their thought was ἢ διώκων οἴχεται ἢ καταληψόμενός τι προελήλακε.—6 Dative following πείσομαι, I will obey (860).—7 Accusative of specification (834).—8 that I have deceived. The participle is in indirect discourse (628).—9 just (things). see 806.

725. The King’s Chariots are useless. Cyrus on the Alert.

τῶν δ᾿ ἁρμάτων τὰ μὲν δι᾿ αὐτῶν τῶν πολεμίων ἐφέροντο, τὰ δὲ καὶ διὰ τῶν Ἑλλήνων, κενὰ ἡνιόχων. οἱ δ᾿ ἐπεὶ προΐδοιεν, διίσταντο· καὶ κατελήφθη τις ὥσπερ ἐν ἱπποδρόμῳ ἐκπλαγείς· καὶ οὐδὲν μέντοι οὐδὲ τοῦτον παθεῖν ἔφασαν, οὐδ᾿ ἄλλος τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ μάχῃ ἔπαθεν οὐδεὶς οὐδέν, πλὴν ἐπὶ τῷ εὐωνύμῳ τοξευθῆναί τις ἐλέγετο. Κῦρος δ᾿ ὁρῶν τοὺς Ἕλληνας νῑκῶντας τὸ καθ᾿ αὑτοὺς καὶ διώκοντας, ἡδόμενος καὶ προσκυνούμενος ἤδη ὡς βασιλεὺς ὑπὸ τῶν ἀμφ᾿ αὐτόν, οὐδ᾿ ὣς ἐξήχθη διώκειν, ἀλλὰ ἐπεμελεῖτο ὅ τι ποιήσει βασιλεύς. καὶ γὰρ ᾔδει αὐτὸν ὅτι μέσον ἔχοι τοῦ Περσικοῦ στρατεύματος.

NOTES.—1. τῶν ἁρμάτων: i.e. of the enemy.—τὰ μὲν. . . τὰ δέ: some . . . others (815).—2. ἡνιόχων: genitive following the adjective signifying want (855).—οἱ δέ: and they, i.e. the Greeks.—3. ἐπεὶ προΐδοιεν, διίσταντο: opened a gap, whenever they saw them coming on, optative in general supposition (533, 5).—κατελήφθη τις ἐκπλαγείς: one Greek was caught in his consternation. He was “rattled” and failed to get out of the way!—4. καὶ . . . ἔφασαν: and yet, in fact (καὶ μέντοι), they said that not even he suffered any harm. For the emphatic negative expressed by the accumulation of negatives, see the note on 616, 10. Cf. the next line.—10. τὶς: a single man.—11. ὁρῶν: when he saw(495, 1).—νῖκῶντας, διώκοντας: participles in indirect discourse (628).—12. ἡδόμενος, προσκυνούμενος: concessive participles (495, 6).—13. οὐδ᾿ ὥς: not even then (thus, under these circumstances). —15. ᾔδει αὐτὸν ὅτι ἔχοι: knew him that he had, i. e. knew that he had.