LESSON LXXIII: Verbal Adjectives.

Verbal Adjectives

677. Verbal adjectives are derived from verb stems, and are generally equivalent to passive participles in meaning. They are formed by adding τός and τέος to the verb stem, which generally has the same form as in the first aorist passive (with the change of φ and χ to π and κ before τ).

Thus, ποιέω, do, ἐποήθην, ποιητέος; πορεύομαι, advance, ἐπορεύθην, πορευτέος; πέμπω, send, ἐπέμφθην, πεμπτέος; θαυμάζω, wonder at, ἐθαυμάσθην, θαυμαστός; πείθω, persuade, mid. obey, ἐπείσθην, πειστέος; διώκω, pursue, ἐδιώχθην, διωκτέος.

678. The verbal in τέος has both a personal and an impersonal construction, of which the latter is more common.

679. 1. ἄλλαι νῆες μεταπεμπτέαι εἰσίν, other ships must be sent for.

2. ὠφελητέᾱ σοι ἡ πόλις ἐστίν, the city must be succored by you.

680. In the personal construction, the verbal in τέος is passive in sense, and expresses necessity, like the Latin participle in dus, agreeing with the subject. The agent is expressed by the dative.

681. 1. ταῦτα ἡμῖν ποιητέον ἐστίν, we must do this.

2. πεμπτέα ἐστὶ τὸν στρατηγὸν ὑμῖν, you must send your general.

3. τὴν πορείᾱν ὑμῖν πεζῇ ποιητέον, you must make the journey on foot.

682. In the impersonal construction the verbal is in the neuter of the nominative singular (sometimes plural), with ἐστί expressed or understood. The expression is equivalent to δεῖ, one must, with the infinitive. It is practically active in sense, and allows transitive verbals to have an object like their verbs. The agent is expressed by the dative.

683. 1. ἔλαθε τὸν Κῦρον ἀπελθών, he went off unnoticed by Cyrus.

2. ἔτυχε γὰρ τάξις αὐτῷ ἑπομένη τῶν ὁπλῑτῶν, as it chanced, a division of heavy-armed men was following him.

3. φθάσει τοὺς ἄλλους Κῦρος ἀφικόμενος, Cyrus will arrive before the others.

The Participle with λανθάνω, τυγχάνω, and φθάνω.

684. The participle with λανθάνω, escape the notice of, τυγχάνω, happen, and φθάνω, anticipate, contains the leading idea of the expression and is usually translated by a verb. The aorist participle here coincides in time with the verb (unless this expresses duration) and does not denote past time in itself.


ἀπο-πορεύομαιgo off, depart.
ζηλωτός, ή, όν (cf. ζηλόω, envy)to be envied, enviable.
θαυμαστός, ή, όν (cf. θαυμάζω)wonderful, surprising.
ἱππικός, ή, όν (cf. ἵππος)for cavalry; τὸ ἱππικόν, the cavalry, the horse
λανθάνω (λαθ), λήσω, ἔλαθον, λέληθα, λέλησμαιescape the notice of; mid., forget.
μανθάνω (μαθ), μαθήσομαι, ἔμαθον, μεμάθηκαlearn, esp. by inquiry, find out, hear of.
μετάπεμπτος, ον (cf. μεταπέμπομαι)sent for.
μή-ποτε (μή + ποτέ)never.
ξίφος, ους, τόsword.
φθάνω (φθα), φθήσομαι and φθάσω, ἔφθην and ἔφθασαanticipate, outstrip.


1. εἰς καλὸν1 ἥκετε· ἐπὶ γὰρ τὸ ὄρος πορευτέον.
2. σκεπτέον μοι δοκεῖ εἶναι ὅπως τὰ ὅπλα ἕξομεν, τὰ δόρατα καὶ τὰ ξίφη καὶ τὰ ἄλλα.
3. καὶ οἱ ἱππεῖς ἐλάνθανον αὑτοὺς ἐπὶ τῷ γηλόφῳ γενόμενοι2.
4. οὐκ ἂν εἴη θαυμαστὸν εἰ τύχοιεν ταῦτα μαθόντες.
5. οὗτος δὲ τεταγμένος ἐτύγχανεν ἐπὶ τῷ εὐωνύμῳ τοῦ ἱππικοῦ3 ἄρχων.
6. ὦ ἄνδρες στρατιῶται, τὴν πορείᾱν πεζῇ ποιητέον· οὐ γάρ ἐστι πλοῖα.
7. παρῆν δὲ καὶ Λακεδαιμόνιός τις ἐπὶ τῶν νεῶν, μετάπεμπτος ὑπὸ Κύρου.
8. καὶ φθάνουσιν ἐπὶ τῷ ἄκρῳ γενόμενοι τοὺς πολεμίους.
9. ἡμῖν δὲ πάντα ποιητέα ὡς μήποτ᾿ ἐπὶ τοῖς βαρβάροις γενώμεθα.
10. ἐγὼ δὲ ὑμῶν τὸν οἴκαδε βουλόμενον ἀποπορεύεσθαι τοῖς οἴκοι ζηλωτὸν4 ποιήσω.

NOTES. —1 SC. χρόνον, in the nick of time.2 Note αὑτούς, they got there before they knew it.3 With ἄρχων, as commander of the horse.4 an object of envy to his (friends) at home. For the two accusatives after ποιέω, see 840. —5 Use the neuter plural. —6 δι᾿ ἅ.

688. Armor of Cyrus and his Bodyguard. The Enemy appear.

Κῦρος δὲ καὶ οἱ ἱππεῖς τούτου ὅσον ἑξακόσιοι ὡπλισμένοι ἦσαν θώρᾱξι μὲν αὐτοὶ καὶ παραμηριδίοις καὶ κράνεσι πάντες πλὴν Κύρου· Κῦρος δὲ ψῑλὴν εἶχε τὴν κεφαλὴν ἐν τῇ μάχῃ. οἱ δ᾿ ἵπποι πάντες οἱ μετὰ Κύρου εἶχον καὶ προμετωπίδια καὶ προστερνίδια· εἶχον δὲ καὶ μαχαίρᾱς οἱ ἱππεῖς Ἑλληνικάς. καὶ ἤδη τε ἦν μέσον ἡμέρᾱς καὶ οὔπω καταφανεῖς ἦσαν οἱ πολέμιοι ἡνίκα δὲ δείλη ἐγίγνετο, ἐφάνη κὸνιορτὸς ὥσπερ νεφέλη λευκή, χρόνῳ δὲ πολλῷ ὕστερον ὥσπερ μελανίᾱ τις ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ ἐπὶ πολύ.

NOTES. —1. ὅσον: neuter as adverb, with numerals, about. —3. πλὴν Κύρου: the exception extends only to κράνεσι. —7. ἡνίκα . . . ἐγίγνετο: when it began to be (literally, was becoming) afternoon. —8. ἐφάνη: there was seen. —χρὁνῳ . . . ἐπὶ πολύ: considerably later (the cloud of dust appeared) just like a sort of blackness in the plain for a great distance (ἐπὶ πολύ). For χρόνῳ, a dative of the degree of difference, see 867.