LESSON LXXI: First Passive System. Complex Sentences in Indirect Discourse.

The Aorist and Future Passive

656. Only the Aorist and the Future have a passive voice that can be distinguished from the middle voice.

657. Learn the first passive system of λύω, loose.

First Aorist Passive Indicative of λύω, loose
First Person Singularἐ-λύθη-ν
Second Person Singularἐ-λύθη-ς
Third Person Singularἐ-λύθη
Second Person Dualἐ-λύθη-τον
Third Person Dualἐ-λυθή-την
First Person Pluralἐ-λύθη-μεν
Second Person Pluralἐ-λύθη-τε
Third Person Pluralἐ-λύθη-σαν
Future Passive Indicative of λύω, loose
First Person Singularλυθήσο-μαι
Second Person Singularλυθήσει
Third Person Singularλυθήσε-ται
Second Person Dualλυθήσε-σθον
Third Person Dualλυθήσε-σθον
First Person Pluralλυθησό-μεθα
Second Person Pluralλυθήσε-σθε
Third Person Pluralλυθήσον-ται
First Aorist Passive Subjunctive of λύω, loose
First Person Singularλυθῶ
Second Person Singularλυθῇς
Third Person Singularλυθῇ
Second Person Dualλυθῆ-τον
Third Person Dualλυθῆ-τον
First Person Pluralλυθῶ-μεν
Second Person Pluralλυθῆ-τε
Third Person Pluralλυθῶσι
First Aorist Passive Optative of λύω, loose
First Person Singularλυθείη-ν
Second Person Singularλυθείη-ς
Third Person Singularλυθείη
Second Person Dualλυθεῖ-τον or λυθείη-τον
Third Person Dualλυθεί-την or λυθειή-την
First Person Pluralλυθεῖ-μεν or λυθείη-μεν
Second Person Pluralλυθεῖ-τε or λυθείη-τε
Third Person Pluralλυθεῖε-ν or λυθείη-σαν
Future Passive Optative of λύω, loose
First Person Singularλυθησοί-μην
Second Person Singularλυθήσοι-ο
Third Person Singularλυθήσοι-το
Second Person Dualλυθήσοι-σθον
Third Person Dualλυθησοί-σθην
First Person Pluralλυθησοί-μεθα
Second Person Pluralλυθήσοι-σθε
Third Person Pluralλυθήσοι-ντο

Notes on the formation of the passive voice

658. Liquid verbs suffer in the main the same changes in the first passive system as in the first perfect system (623–626).

Thus, ἀγγέλλω (ἀγγελ), ἠγγέλθην (623); τείνω (τεν), ἐτάθην (624, 625); κρίνω (κριν), ἐκρίθην (625); βάλλω (βαλ), ἐβλήθην; τέμνω (τεμ), ἐτμήθην (626).

659. If ν is not dropped (625), it remains unchanged, as φαίνω (φαν), ἐφάνθην.

Complex Sentences in Indirect Discourse

660. When a complex sentence, i.e. a sentence consisting of a leading and a dependent clause or clauses, is indirectly quoted, its leading verb follows the rule for simple sentences (569, 572, 590, 469, 608, 628), but its dependent verb or verbs are subject to the law illustrated in the following examples:

Each complex sentence is here quoted after a primary tense, and the verb of its dependent clause changes neither its mood nor its tense.

661. 1. λέγει ὅτι φλυᾱρεῖ ὅστις ταῦτα λέγει, he says that whoever says this talks nonsense.

2. καλῶς ἕξειν φησίν, ἐὰν τοῦτο πράττωσι, he says that it will be well if they do this.

3. ὑπισχνεῖται αὐτοῖς μὴ πρόσθεν παύσεσθαι πρὶν ἂν αὐτοὺς καταγάγῃ οἴκαδε, he promises them not to stop until he brings them back home.

4. τοὺς ἡγεμόνας φησὶν ἄξειν οὕς μετεπέμψαντο, he says that he will bring the guides whom they sent for.

5. λέγει ὅτι καλῶς ἂν ἔσχεν εἰ ἔπρᾱξαν τοῦτο, he says that it would have been well if they had done this.

6. φησὶ πρᾶξαι ἂν ὅ τι βούλοιντο, he says that he would do whatever they might wish.

When the dependent clause follows a secondary tense,its verb (originally a primary tense of the indicative or a subjunctive) may either be changed to the same tense of the optative or retained in the original mood and tense. When the subjunctive becomes the optative, ἄν is dropped (ἐάν becoming εἰ).

662. 1. εἶπεν ὅτι φλυᾱροίη ὅστις ταῦτα λέγοι (this might be ὅστις ταῦτα λέγει), he said that whoever said this talked nonsense.

2. καλῶς ἕξειν ἔφη, εἰ τοῦτο πράττοιεν (this might be ἐὰν τοῦτο πράττωσι), he said that it would be well if they did this.

3. ὑπέσχετο αὐτοῖς μὴ πρόσθεν παύσεσθαι πρὶν αὐτοὺς καταγάγοι οἴκαδε (this might be πρὶν ἄν αὐτοὺς καταγάγῃ), he promised them not to stop until he brought them back home.

When the dependent clause follows a secondary tense, but its verb (originally a secondary tense of the indicative or an optative) retains its mood and tense.

4. τοὺς ἡγεμόνας ἔφη ἄξειν οὓς μετεπέμψαντο (this could not be οὓς μεταπέμψαιντο), he said that he would bring the guides, whom they had sent for.

5. ἔλεξεν ὅτι καλῶς ἂν ἔσχεν εἰ ἔπρᾱξαν τοῦτο (here no change is possible), he said that it would have been well, if they had done this.

6. ἔφη πρᾶξαι ἂν ὅ τι βούλοιντο (no change is possible), he said that he would do whatever they might wish.

663. When a complex sentence is indirectly quoted, after primary tenses the dependent verbs retain the same mood and tense. After past tenses, dependent primary tenses of the indicative and all dependent subjunctives may either be changed to the same tense of the optative, or retain their original mood and tense. When a subjunctive becomes optative, ἄν is dropped. But dependent secondary tenses of the indicative and dependent optatives remain unchanged.


αἰσχύνω (αίσχυν), αἰσχυνῶ, ᾔσχῡνα, ᾐσχύνθην (cf. αἰσχρός)shame; αἰσχύνομαι as pass. dep., feel ashamed, feel ashamed before.
ἄλλως (cf. ἄλλος)adv., otherwise.
ἀν-οίγω, ἀν-οίξω, ἀν-έῳξα, ἀν-έῳγα and ἀν-έῳχα, ἀν-έῳγμαι, ἀν-εῴχθηνopen up, open.
δέω, δήσω, ἔδησα, δέδεκα, δέδεμαι, ἐδέθηνbind, fetter.
κατα-σχίζωsplit open, burst open.
ὅσος, η, ονrel. pron., how much or great, how many, as.
πώςadv., in any way, at all (enclitic).
σωφροσύνη, ης, ἡself-control.
τιτρώσκω (τρο), τρώσω, ἔτρωσα, τέτρωμαι, ἐτρώθηνwound.
τοσοῦτος, η, ονdem pron., so much, so many.
τυγχάνω (τυχ), τεύξομαι, ἔτυχον, τετύχηκα and τέτευχαhit, attain, get, happen.
φλυᾱρέω, φλυᾱρήσωtalk nonsense, talk bosh.


1. ᾐσχύνθημεν καὶ θεοὺς καὶ ἀνθρώπους τὸν ἡγεμόνα δῆσαι.
2. ἠρώτων πολλοὶ εἰ ἡσθήσεται βασιλεύς, ἐὰν οἴκαδε πορευώμεθα.
3. Κῦρος γὰρ ἐνόμιζεν ὅσῳ1 θᾶττον ἔλθοι, τοσούτῳ1 ἀπαρασκευοτέρῳ βασιλεῖ μαχεῖσθαι2.
4. κατασχίσειν τε τὰς πύλᾱς ἔφασαν, εἰ μὴ ἑκόντες ἀνοίξειαν.
5. ἔνθα πολλὴν σωφροσύνην3 ἐδιδάχθησαν οἱ παῖδες.
6. Κῦρος ὑπέσχετο αὐτοῖς, εἰ καλῶς καταπράξειε τὸν στόλον, μὴ πρόσθεν παύσεσθαι πρὶν αὐτοὺς καταγάγοι οἴκαδε.
7. καὶ πολλοὶ ἐτρώθησαν τῶν πελταστῶν.
8. οὗτος δ᾿ εἶπεν ὅτι φλυᾱροίη ὅστις λέγοι ἄλλως πως σωτηρίᾱς4 ἂν τυχεῖν5.
9. οἱ μὲν δὴ στρατηγοὶ οὕτω ληφθέντες ἤχθησαν πρὸς βασιλέᾱ καὶ ἀποτμηθέντες τὰς κεφαλὰς6 ἐτελεύτησαν.
10. τοῦτο δὴ δεῖ λέγειν, πῶς ἂν πορευοίμεθά τε ὡς ἀσφαλέστατα7 καὶ εἰ μάχεσθαι δέοι ὡς κράτιστα μαχοίμεθα8.

NOTES.—1 ὅσῳ. . . τοσούτῳ, by how much . . . by so much, i.e. in English, the . . . the, datives of the degree of difference (867).—2 Cyrus thought, ὅσῳ ἂν θᾶττον ἔλθω, τοσούτῳ ἀπαρασκευοτέρῳ βασιλεῖ μαχοῦμαι. —3 The passive construction after a verb signifying to teach (838), in which the accusative of the thing taught is retained.—4 The genitive follows verbs signifying to attain (845).—5 In the original ἂν τύχοιμι.— 6 cf. 616, 5.—7 as safely as possible. For ὡς with superlatives, Latin quam, see the general vocabulary.—8 ἄν belongs also with μαχοίμεθα.— 9 Use the aorist participle.—10 Use the aorist participle of δείδω.

667. “The King is coming!”

καὶ ἤδη τε ἦν ἀμφὶ ἀγορὰν πλήθουσαν καὶ πλησίον ἦν ὁ σταθμὸς ἔνθα Κῦρος ἔμελλε καταλύειν, ἡνίκα ἀνὴρ Πέρσης προφαίνεται ἐλαύνων ἀνὰ κράτος καὶ εὐθὺς πᾶσιν οἷς ἐνετύγχανεν ἐβόᾱ καὶ βαρβαρικῶς καὶ Ἑλληνικῶς ὅτι βασιλεὺς σὺν στρατεύματι πολλῷ προσέρχεται ὡς (as if) εἰσ μάχην παρεσκευασμένος. ἔνθα δὴ πολὺς τάραχος ἐγένετο· αὐτίκα γὰρ ἐδόκουν οἱ Ἕλληνες καὶ πάντες δὲ ἀτάκτοις σφίσιν ἐπιπεσεῖσθαι.

NOTES.—1. ἦν . . . πλήθουσαν: it was about the time of full market.— 2. σταθμός: halting place.—3. προφαίνεται . . . κράτος: comes in sight riding at full speed.—7. καὶ πάντες δέ: and (δέ) all alike, i.e. Persians as well as Greeks.—8. ἐπιπεσεῖσθαι: their thought was, ἀτάκτοις (in disorder) ἡμῖν ἐπιπεσεῖται βασιλεύς. See ἐπι-πίπτω.