LESSON LXV: Second Aorist System. Indirect Discourse.

603. The second tenses differ from the corresponding first tenses in form, but have like meaning. When, however, a verb has both tenses (i.e. both a first and a second aorist), they may differ also in meaning. Comparatively few verbs have both forms.

604. The second aorist system includes the second aorist active and middle.

605. Learn the conjugation of the second aorist system of λείπω, leave.

Second Aorist Active Indicative of λείπω - leave
First Person Singularἔ-λιπο-ν
Second Person Singularἔ-λιπε-ς
Third Person Singularἔ-λιπε
Second Person Dualἐ-λίπε-τον
Third Person Dualἐ-λιπέ-την
First Person Pluralἐ-λίπο-μεν
Second Person Pluralἐ-λίπε-τε
Third Person Pluralἔ-λιπο-ν
Second Aorist Middle Indicative of λείπω - leave
First Person Singularἐ-λιπό-μην
Second Person Singularἐ-λίπου
Third Person Singularἐ-λίπε-το
Second Person Dualἐ-λίπε-σθον
Third Person Dualἐ-λιπέ-σθην
First Person Pluralἐ-λιπό-μεθα
Second Person Pluralἐ-λίπε-σθε
Third Person Pluralἐ-λίπο-ντο

Notes on the formation of the second aorist

Note the exceptions to the principle of recessive accent (53), λιποῦ, λιπεῖν, λιπέσθαι, λιπών.

606. The stem of the second aorist is formed by adding the tense suffix (135) ο/ε to the verb stem, as λείπω (λιπ), leave, second aorist stem λιπ ο/ε. In a few second aorists, ε of the stem is changed to α. As a secondary tense, the second aorist has augment in the indicative. It follows the inflection of the present system (553, 1), having in the indicative the inflection of the imperfect, and in the other moods that of the present.

Indirect Discourse Review

607.Review the discussions of indirect discourse in lessons 50 and 60. Note, further, under the rule given in Lesson 50 #469, that:

608. Each tense of the infinitive with ἄν in indirect discourse represents the corresponding tense of either indicative or optative with ἄν.

Thus: σὺν ὑμῖν ἂν οἶμαι εἶναι τίμιος, with you I think that I should be in honor. (The original thought is, σὺν ὑμῖν ἂν εἴην τίμιος.)

Verbs Introducing Indirect Discourse

609. Of the three common verbs meaning to say,—

1. φημί regularly takes the infinitive in indirect discourse;

2. εἶπον (second aorist, said) regularly takes ὅτι or ὡς with the indicative or optative;

3. λέγω allows either construction, but in the active voice it generally takes ὅτι or ὡς.

1. Note also that δοκέω takes the infinitive in indirect discourse ( 1 ) in its common meaning of seem, appear, both when used personally and when used impersonally; ( 2 ) in its less frequent meaning of consider, think, suppose. When δοκέω means seem right, good, or best, the infinitive that follows is not in indirect discourse.


αἱρέω (αἱρε, ἑλ), αἱρήσω, εἷλον, ᾕρηκα, ᾕρημαι, ᾑρέθηνtake, seize, capture; mid., take for oneself, choose, prefer, elect, side with.
ἀπο-θνῄσκωdie off, die, be killed, fall in battle.
εἶπον (εἰπ, ἐρ, ῥε), ἐρῶ, εἴρηκα, εἴρημαι, ἐρρήθηνsay, speak, tell, order.
ἐμ-πίπτωfall upon.
θνῄσκω (θαν), θανοῦμαι, ἔθανον, ἔθανον, τέθνηκα (cf. θάνατος)die; perf., be dead.
πάσχω (παθ, πενθ), πείσομαι, ἔπαθον, πέπονθαexperience, suffer; εὖ παθεῖν, be well treated.
πίπτω (πετ, πτο), πεσοῦμαι, ἔπεσον, πέπτωκαfall.
προ-τρέχωrun forward or ahead.
πυνθάνομαι (πυθ), πεύσομαι, ἐπυθόμην, πέπυσμαιinquire, learn by inquiry, ascertain, find out.
τρέχω (τρεχ, δραμ), δραμοῦμαι, ἔδραμον, δεδράμηκα, δεδράμημαιrun.
ὤνιος, ᾱ, ονpurchasable; τὰ ὤνια, wares, goods.


1. τοῦς βαρβάροις1 ἐνέπεσε τὸ Ἑλληνικόν.
2. εἶπον ὅτι ἂν φύγοιεν.
3. πάντες οἱ φίλοι λέγονται ἀποθανεῖν μαχόμενοι ὑπὲρ Κύρου.
4. ἔχω γὰρ τριήρεις ὥστε ἑλεῖν2 τὸ ἐκείνων πλοῖον.
5. Κλέαρχος δοκεῖ γενέσθαι ἀνὴρ πολεμικός.
6. νομίζει Κῦρος ὑπ᾿ ἐμοῦ κακῶς παθεῖν.
7. καὶ οἱ ὄνοι προέδραμον.
8. δρόμος ἐγένετο τοῖς στρατιώταις3 ἐπὶ τὰς σκηνάς, οἱ δ᾿ ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ καταλιπόντες τὰ ὤνια ἔφυγον.
9. οὗτοι ἔλεγον ὅτι Κῦρος τέθνηκε.
10. ὑμῶν4 δὲ ἔρημος ὢν οὐκ ἂν ἱκανὸς οἶμαι εἶναι τοὺς φίλους ὠφελῆσαι.
11. ἐπεὶ ὁ στρατηγὸς ταῦτ᾿ ἐπύθετο, λαβὼν τοὺς ἱππέᾱς ἀπήλασεν.
12. καὶ περὶ τούτων ὑπέσχετό μοι βουλεύσεσθαι.

NOTES.—1 The dative follows compound verbs (865).—2 For the infinitive following ὥστε, see 471.—3 Equivalent to οἱ στρατιῶται ἔδραμον. —4 For the genitive depending on ἔρημος, see 855.—5 Use the aorist of παρέχω.—6 Aorist participle, all having left the road fled.

613. Cyrus is confident that the King will fight.

παρεκελεύοντο δὲ Κύρῳ πάντες μὴ μάχεσθαι, ἀλλ᾿ ὄπισθεν ἑαυτῶν τάττεσθαι. ἐν δὲ τῷ καιρῷ τούτῳ Κλέαρχος ὧδέ πως ἐρωτᾷ τὸν Κῦρον· “Οἴει γάρ σοι μαχεῖσθαι, ὦ Κῦρε, τὸν ἀδελφόν;” “Νὴ Δί᾿,” ἔφη ὁ Κῦρος, “εἴπερ γε Δᾱρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδός ἐστι παῖς, ἐμὸς δὲ ἀδελφός, οὐκ ἀμαχεὶ ταῦτ᾿ ἐγὼ λήψομαι.”

NOTES.—1. μὴ μάχεσθαι: i. e. in person.—2. ἑαυτῶν: after the adverb of place (856).—3. γάρ: with reference to some unexpressed intimation of Cyrus, What! do you think, etc.—4. Νὴ Δία: Yes, by Zeus, accusative in an oath (837).