LESSON LXIII: Future and First Aorist Systems of Liquid Verbs. Interrogative Subjunctive.

Future and First Aorist Systems of Liquid Verbs

582. Verbs whose stems end in a liquid (λ μ ν ρ) are called liquid verbs (273).

583.Learn the conjugation of the future system of φαίνω, show.

Future Active Indicative of φανῶ
First Person Singularφανῶ
Second Person Singularφανεῖς
Third Person Singularφανεῖ
Second Person Dualφανεῖ-τον
Third Person Dualφανεῖ-τον
First Person Pluralφανοῦ-μεν
Second Person Pluralφανεῖ-τε
Third Person Pluralφανοῦσι
Future Middle Indicative of φανῶ
First Person Singularφανοῦ-μαι
Second Person Singularφανεῖ
Third Person Singularφανεῖ-ται
Second Person Dualφανεῖ-σθον
Third Person Dualφανεῖ-σθον
First Person Pluralφανού-μεθα
Second Person Pluralφανεῖ-σθε
Third Person Pluralφανοῦ-νται

584. The future of liquid verds is formed by adding the tense suffix ε ο/ε, instead of σ ο/ε (553, 2) to stem; ε is contracted with the following vowel, as in the present of ποιέω (782). Thus, μένω (μεν), remain, future μενῶ, μενεῖς, etc., φαίνω (φαν), show, future φανῶ, φανεῖς, φανεῖ, etc.

585.Learn the conjugation of the first aorist system of φαίνω, show,.

First Aorist Active Indicative of φανῶ
First Person Singularἔ-φηνα
Second Person Singularἔ-φηνα-ς
Third Person Singularἔ-φηνε
Second Person Dualἐ-φήνα-τον
Third Person Dualἐ-φηνά-την
First Person Pluralἐ-φήνα-μεν
Second Person Pluralἐ-φήνα-τε
Third Person Pluralἔ-φηνα-ν
First Aorist Middle Indicative of φανῶ
First Person Singularἐ-φηνά-μην
Second Person Singularἐ-φήνω
Third Person Singularἐ-φήνα-το
Second Person Dualἐ-φήνα-σθην
Third Person Dualἐ-φηνά-σθην
First Person Pluralἐ-ξηνά-μεθα
Second Person Pluralἐ-φήνα-σθε
Third Person Pluralἐ-φήνα-ντο

586. The first aorist system of liquid verbs rejects σ of the tense suffiix ασ (553, 3) and Iengthens the stem vowel in compensation, α to η (but to ᾱ after ι or ρ), ε to ει, ι to ῑ, υ to ῡ. Thus, φαίνω (φαν), show, ἔφηνα; κτείνω (κτεν), kill, ἔκτεινα; (κριν), judge, ἔκρῑνα, etc.

Interrogative Subjunctive

587.1. τί πράξω (aorist subjunctive); what shall I do? 2. τὸν ἄνδρα ἀποκτείνωμεν; shall we put the man to death? 3.μή πέμπωμεν τοὺς πελταστάς; shall we not send the peltasts?

Each of these sentences is interrogative; its principal verb is in the first person of the subjunctive; if negative, it takes μή.

588. The first person of the subjunctive may be used in questions of appeal, where a person asks himself or another what he is to do. The negative is μή.

589. 1. ἀπορεῖ τί (or ὅ τι) πράξῃ, he is at a loss what to do.

2. ἠπόρει τί (or ὅ τι) πράξειε (or πράξῃ), he was at a loss what to do.

The interrogative subjunctive here quoted, after a primary tense, changes neither its mood nor its tense; after a secondary tense, the subjunctive may become optative.

Interrogative Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse

590. After a primary tense, an interrogative subjunctive, when indirectly quoted, retains both its mood and tense. After a secondary tense, it is either changed to the same tense of the optative or retained in the same tense of the subjunctive.


ἀγγέλλω (ἀγγελ), ἀγγελῶ, ἤγγειλα, ἤγγελκα, ἤγγελμαι, ἠγγέλθην (cf. ἄγγελος)announce, report.
ἀπ-αγγέλλωbring back word, report.
ἀπο-κρίνομαιmid. dep., give a decision, answer.
ἀπο-κτείνωkill off, put to death.
ἀπο-φαίνωshow forth; mid., show one’s own, declare, express.
βάλλω (βαλ), βαλῶ, ἔβαλον, βέβληκα, βέβλημαι, ἐβλήθηνthrow, throw at, hit with stones, stone.
γνώμη, ης, ἡopinion, plan, judgment.
ἐκ-βάλλωthrow out, expel.
κάω (καυ), καύσω, ἔκαυσα, κέκαυκα, κέκαυμαι, ἐκαύθηνburn.
κρίνω (κριν), κρινῶ, ἔκρῑνα, κέκρικα, κέκριμαι, ἐκρίθηνdivide, distinguish, decide, judge.
κτείνω (κτεν), κτενῶ, ἔκτεινα, ἔκτοναkill.
μένω, μενῶ, ἔμεινα, μεμένηκαremain, stay, wait for, last.
πότερον . . . ἤwhether . . . or, in an alternative question (both direct and indirect); also, in an indirect question, εἰ . . . ἤ, whether . . . or.
φαίνω (φαν), φανῶ, ἔφηνα, πέφαγκα and πέφηνα, πέφασμαι, ἐφάνθην and ἐφάνην (cf. φανερός)bring to light, show; mid. and pass., show oneself, appear.


1. πότερον ταῦτα ἀπαγγελεῖ ἢ μενεῖτε;
2. σὺ δὲ πρῶτος ἀπόφηναι τὴν γνώμην.
3. ἐθαύμασαν δὲ πάντες ὅ τι οἱ ἄλλοι Ἕλληνες ἀποκρινοῖντο.
4. ἀποροῦμεν εἰ καύσομεν τὰς ἁμάξᾱς ἃς ἔχομεν.
5. τοὺς μὲν1 αὐτῶν ἀποκτενεῖ, τοὺς δ᾿ ἐκβαλεῖ.
6. ἐβουλεύοντο εἰ τοὺς ἄνδρας κτείνειαν ἢ μή2.
7. οὐ μέντοι ταχὺ ἀγγελῶ, ἀλλὰ διατρίψω.
8. καὶ Κλέαρχος κρίνᾱς ἀδικεῖν τὸν τοῦ Μένωνος στρατιώτην ἔπαιεν.
9. ἡγεμὼν οὐδεὶς ἡμῖν φανεῖται.
10. Κῦρος δ᾿ ἀπεκρίνατο ὅτι ἀκούοι τὸν σατράπην ἐπὶ τῷ Εὐφράτῃ ποταμῷ εἶναι.
11. ὁ δ᾿ ἐβουλεύετο εἰ μένοιεν ἢ πορεύοιντο ἐπὶ τὰς σκηνάς.
12. παίσειν φᾱσὶ τὸν ἄνθρωπον τοῦτον καὶ βαλεῖν, ἐὰν μὴ πορεύηται.

NOTES.—1 some . . . others (815).—2 The original question was, πότερον τοὺς ἄνδρας κτείνωμεν ἢ μή;—3 He said to himself, τί ἀποκρίνωμαι;— 4 They said to themselves, πότερον φηνώμεθα ἢ μή;

594. Answer of Cyrus.

ἀκούσᾱς ταῦτα τοῦ Γαυλίτου ἔλεξεν ὁ Κῦρος· “Ἀλλ᾿ ἔστι μὲν ἡμῖν, ὦ ἄνδρες, ἡ ἀρχὴ ἡ πατρῴᾱ πρὸς μὲν μεσημβρίᾱν μέχρι οὗ διὰ καῦμα οὐχ οἷοί τ᾿ εἰσὶν οἰκεῖν ἄνθρωποι, πρὸς δὲ ἄρκτον μέχρι οὗ διὰ χειμῶνα· τὰ δ᾿ ἐν μέσῳ τούτων πάντα σατραπεύουσιν οἱ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ φίλοι. ἢν δ᾿ ἡμεῖς νῑκήσωμεν, ἡμᾶς δεῖ τοὺς ἡμετέρους φίλους τούτων ἐγκρατεῖς ποιῆσαι.”

NOTES.—1. Γαυλίτου: verbs of hearing (cf. 846) may take an accusative of the thing heard, and a genitive of the person heard from as the source (851).—2. ἔστι: for the accent, see 166, 2.—ἡμῖν: dative of advantage (861).—3. μεσημβρίᾱν: literally, midday (μέσος + ἡμέρᾱ), i.e. the south.—μέχρι οὗ: literally, to what (point), i.e. to the point where, neuter of the relative ὅς with μέχρι used as a preposition (until).—καῦμα: heat. Cf. κάω.—4. χειμῶνα: cold. Cf. χιών.—τὰ . . . πάντα: all between these (limits). —5. τούτων: with ἐγκρατεῖς (855).