LESSON LXI: Future and First Aorist Systems of Vowel and Mute Verbs.

Aorist Review

566. Review the future and first aorist systems of λύω in sections 766 and 767 of the reference grammar, and be sure you know the moods in order, down the columns, first in the active, then in the middle.

Tenses and Moods in Indirect Discourse

In the examples below, the verb in the principal clause is in a primary tense (50), and there is no change in either the mood or the tense of the quoted verbs.

568. 1. ἔλεξεν ὅτι (or ὡς) γράφοι (or γράφει) ἐπιστολήν, he said that he was writing a letter.

In these examples there may be a change from the indicative to the optative, but the tense remains the same; the verb in the principal clause is in a secondary tense (50).

2. ἠρώτησε τί (or ὅ τι) βούλοισθε (or βούλεσθε), he asked what you wanted.

569. After a primary tense, an indicative (without ἄν), in indirect quotations after ὅτι and ὡς, and in indirect questions, retains both its mood and its tense. After a secondary tense it is either changed to the same tense of the optative or retained in the original mood and tense.

570. 1. οὕτως ἂν τὴν ἐπιστολὴν ἔγραψα, in that case I should have written the latter.

2. λέγει ὅτι (or ὡς) οὕτως ἂν τὴν ἐπιστολὴν ἔγραψε, he says that in that case he should have written the letter.

3. ἔλεξεν ὅτι (or ὡς) οὕτως ἂν τὴν ἐπιστολὴν ἔγραψε, he said that in that case he should have written the letter.

571.Τhe verb in the quoted sentence retains its original mood and tense (an indicative or optative with ἄν), whether the verb which it follows is primary or secondary.

1. ἆρ᾿ ἐπιστολὴν ἂν γράψειας; would you write a letter?

2. ἐρωτᾷ εἰ ἐπιστολὴν ἂν γράψειας, he asks whether you would write a letter.

3. ἠρώτησεν εἰ ἐπιστολὴν ἂν γράψειας, he asked whether you would write a letter.

572. After both primary and secondary tenses, an indicative or optative with ἄν, in indirect quotations with ὅτι or ὡς, and in indirect questions, retains both its mood and its tense (with ἄν)


δια-τρίβωrub through, consume, waste time, delay
ἔνθα (cf. ἐν)adv.: of place, where, there, here; of time, then, thereupon.
ἐργάζομαι (ἐργαδ), ἐργάσομαι, εἰργασάμην, εἴργασμαι (cf. ἔργον)work, do, inflict on.
θάπτω (ταφ), θάψω, ἔθαψα, τέθαμμαι, ἐτάφηνbury.
κηρύττω (κηρῡκ), κηρύξω, ἐκήρῡξα, κεκήρῡχα, κεκήρῡγμαι, ἐκηρύχθην (cf. κῆρυξ)proclaim, make proclamation.
κρύπτω (κρυφ), κρύψω, ἔκρυψα, κέκρυμμαι, ἐκρύφθηνhide, conceal, keep secret.
κωμήτης, ου, ὁ (cf. κώμη)villager.
οἴκοι (cf. οἰκίᾱ)adv., at home; οἱ οἴκοι, those at home, one’s countrymen. see 23.
τελευταῖος, ᾱ, ον (cf. τελευτή)last; οἰ τελευταῖοι, the rear guard.
τρίβω, τρίψω, ἔτρῑψα, τέτριφα, τέτρῑμμαι, ἐτρίβην and ἐτρίφθηνrub
χιών, όνος, ἡsnow.


1. ἐκέλευσε δὲ τοὺς στρατηγοὺς συντάξαι τοὺς Ἔλληνας.
2. οἱ δὲ διώξαντες ταχὺ1 ἐπαύσαντο.
3. ἐδόκει γὰρ Κῦρος ἥξειν βασιλέᾱ σὺν τῷ στρατεύματι μαχούμενον.
4. πέμψον κωμήτᾱς σκεψομένους πῶς ἔχουσιν2 οἱ τελευταῖοι.
5. ἔνθα δὴ Κῦρος ἔδεισε μὴ βασιλεὺς κατακόψειε τὸ Ἑλληνικόν.
6. ὅτι δὲ ἐπὶ βασιλέᾱ ἄγοι οὐκ ἤκουσαν οἱ στρατιῶται.
7. ἠρώτων Κῦρον τί βούλοιτο τῇ στρατιᾷ χρῆσθαι3.
8. καὶ Κῦρος ἔλεξεν ὅτι ἡ ὁδὸς ἔσοιτο4 πρὸς βασιλέᾱ μέγαν.
9. ἀλλὰ διατρίψω ἵνα φοβῶνται οἱ ἄγγελοι μὴ οὐ τὰς σπονδὰς ποιησώμεθα.
10. ἡ χιὼν ἔκρυψε καὶ τὰ ὅπλα καὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους.
11. ἐκήρῡξαν οἱ στρατηγοὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας θάψαι.
12. ἔλεξεν ὄτι οὕτως ἂν τοὺς οἴκοι5 κακόν τι εἰργάσαντο.

NOTES.—1 The neuter of the adjective is here used as an adverb.— 2Cf. καῦς ἔχουσιν.—3 cf. 562, 2.—4 Future optative of εἰμί.—5 One of the two objects of ἂν εἰργάσαντο (839).—6 Use σκέπτομαι.—7 by means of, ἀπό.

576. “You need not fear the Coming Struggle, and Success will bring Reward.”

“Ἐγὼ δὲ εἰς οἷον ἔρχεσθε ἀγῶνα ὑμᾶς διδάζω. τὸ μὲν γὰρ πλῆθος τῶν βαρβάρων πολύ ἐστι καὶ κραυγῇ πολλῇ ἐπέρχονται· ἂν δὲ ταῦτα ἀνάσχησθε, τὰ ἄλλα αἰσχύνομαι οἷοι ἡμῖν οἱ ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ εἰσὶν ἄνθρωποι. ἐὰν δὲ ὑμεῖς ἄνδρες ἦτε καὶ εὖ τὰ ἐμὰ γένηται, ἐγὼ ὑμῶν τὸν μὲν οἴκαδε βουλόμενον ἀπελθεῖν ζηλωτὸν ποιήσω τοῖς οἴκοι, πολλοὺς δὲ οἶμαι βουλήσεσθαι παρ᾿ ἐμοὶ μένειν.”

NOTES.—1. εἰς οἶον . . . ἀγῶνα: into what sort of struggle you are going, indirect question introduced by the ralative οἷος, equivalent to Latin quālis. Cf. οἷοι in line 4.—2. κραυγῇ: dative of manner (866).—3. ταῦτα: i.c. their numbers and outcry.—ἀνάσχησθε: second aorist subjunctive middle of ἀν-έχω, hold up, mid. endure.—τὰ ἄλλα: accusative of specification (834), as to all else I am ashamed (to think) what sort of men my countrymen are. —5. τὰ ἐμά: my affairs.—ὑμῶν τὸν βουλόμενον: whoever of you (partitive genitive, 842) shall wish. For ὁ βουλόμενος, see 487, 3 and 4.—6. ζηλωτόν: an object of envy.