LESSON LVI: Relative Pronouns. Genitive Absolute. Numerals.

Relative Pronouns

512. The relative pronouns are ὅς, ἥ, ὅ, who, which, and ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅ τι, whoever, whichever. The latter is called the indefinite relative.

513. Learn the declension of ὅς and ὅστις.

Masculine Relative Pronoun
Nominative Singularὅς
Genitive Singularοὗ
Dative Singular
Accusative Singularὅν
Nominative Pluralοἵ
Genitive Pluralὧν
Dative Pluralοἷς
Accusative Pluralοὕς
Feminine Relative Pronoun
Nominative Singular
Genitive Singularἧς
Dative Singular
Accusative Singularἥν
Nominative Pluralαἵ
Genitive Pluralὧν
Dative Pluralαἷς
Accusative Pluralἅς
Neuter Relative Pronoun
Nominative Singular
Genitive Singularοὗ
Dative Singular
Accusative Singular
Nominative Plural
Genitive Pluralὧν
Dative Pluralοἷς
Accusative Plural
Masculine Indefinite Relative Pronoun
Nominative Singularὄστις
Genitive Singularοὗτινος, ὅτου
Dative Singularᾧτινι, ὅτῳ
Accusative Singularὅντινα
Nominative Pluralοἵτινες
Genitive Pluralὧντινων, ὄτων
Dative Pluralοἷστισι, ὅτοις
Accusative Pluralοὕστινας
Feminine Indefinite Relative Pronoun
Nominative Singularἤτις
Genitive Singularἧστινος
Dative Singularᾗτινι
Accusative Singularἥντινα
Nominative Pluralαἵτινες
Genitive Pluralὧντινων
Dative Pluralαἷστισι
Accusative Pluralἅστινας
Neuter Indefinite Relative Pronoun
Nominative Singularὅτι
Genitive Singularοὗτινος, ὅτου
Dative Singularᾧτινι, ὅτῳ
Accusative Singularὅ τι
Nominative Pluralἅτινα, ἅττα
Genitive Pluralὧντινων, ὄτων
Dative Pluralοἷστισι, ὅτοις
Accusative Pluralἅτινα, ἅττα

514. ὅστις is compounded of the simple relative ὅς and the indefinite enclitic τὶς (354), each part being separately declined. ὅ τι is so written to distinguish it from ὅτι, that, because.

The Genitive Absolute

516. A noun and a participle not grammatically connected with the main construction of the sentence may stand by themselves in the genitive. This is called the Genitive Absolute.

515. 1. ταῦτ᾿ ἐπράχθη Κλεάρχου στρατηγοῦντος, this was done when Clearchus was general.

2. μετὰ ταῦτα Κύρου κελεύοντος Ὀρόντᾱν ἀπάγουσιν, after this, at the command of Cyrus, they lead Orontas away.

These participles are circumstantial (495), and express time and cause; each modifies a noun in the genitive; the noun and participle are not grammatically connected with the main construction of the sentence.


517. Learn the first ten cardinal numerals, and the declension of εἷς, δύο, τρεῖς, and τέτταρες.

εἷς, μία, ἕνone
τρεῖς, τρίαthree
τέτταρες, τέτταραfour


εἷς, μία, ἕνone.
ἐξ-ελαύνωdrive out; intrans., march, march on.
Ζεύς, Διός, ὁZeus, highest of the gods. Nos. 52, 61.
κατα-πράττωdo thoroughly, accomplish.
ὅς, ἥ, ὅrel. pron., who, which.
ὅσ-τις, ἥτις, ὅ τι (ὅς + τὶς)rel. pron., whoever, whichever.
οὐδ-είς, οὐδεμία, οὐδένdeclined like εἷς (οὐδέ + εἷς), none, no, nobody, nothing.
στάδιον, ου, τόstadium, stade, 600 Greek feet.
στρατηγέω, στρατηγήσω, ἐστρατήγησα, ἐστρατήγηκα (cf. στρατηγός)be general, lead, take command, command.
σωτήρ, ῆρος, ὁ (cf. σῴζω)preserver, savior, a title given to Zeus.
τέτταρεςa, four.
τρεῖς, τρίαthree.
τρίτος, η, ον (cf. τρεῖς)third; τὸ τρίτον as adv., the third time.


1. ἡγεμόνα αἰτεῖτε1 ὅστις2 ὑμᾶς ἀπάξει.
2. ἐξελαύνει διὰ Φρυγίᾱς σταθμὸν ἕνα εἰς πόλιν οἰκουμένην, εὐδαίμονα καὶ μεγάλην.
3. ἦσαν δὲ αὐτοῖς βόες οὓς ἔθῡσαν τῷ Διὶ τῷ σωτῆρι.
4. ἐὰν καλῶς καταπράξω ἐφ᾿ ἃ3 στρατεύομαι, κατάξω ὑμᾶς οἴκαδε.
5. μετὰ ταῦτα, ὦ Ὀρόντα, ἔστιν4 ὅ τι5 σε ἠδίκησα;
6. Κύρου δὲ κελεύσαντος Ἀρίστιππος ἀπέπεμψεν ὃ εἶχε στράτευμα6.
7. ἐντεῦθεν ἐλαύνουσι Κύρου στρατηγοῦντος σταθμοὺς τρεῖς ἐπὶ τὸν Εὐφράτην ποταμόν, οὗ ἦν τὸ εὖρος τέτταρα στάδια.
8. ἐν δὲ τῷ τρίτῳ σταθμῷ Κῦρος ἐξέτασιν ποιεῖται ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ περὶ μέσᾶς νύκτας, οὐδενὸς κωλύντος.

NOTES.—1 Imperative.—2 The case of the relative depends on the construction of the clause in which it stands (826). —3 The antecedent is omitted (827).—4 For the accent, see 166, 2.—5 A cognate accusative (833), is there any wrong that I have done you?6 The antecedent is attracted into the relative clause (829), for ἀπέπεμψε τὸ στράτευμα ὃ εἶχε.—7 παρὰ βασιλεῖ.—8 Imperfect.

521. Orontas confesses his Treachery.

“Τί οὖν,” ἔφη ὁ Κῦρος, “ἀδικηθεὶς ὑπ᾿ ἐμοῦ νῦν τὸ τρίτον ἐπιβουλεύεις μοι;” λέξαντος δὲ τοῦ Ὀρόντᾱ ὅτι οὐδὲν ἀδικηθεὶς ἐπιβουλεύει, ἠρώτησεν ὁ Κῦρος αὐτόν, “Ὁμολογεῖς οὖν περὶ ἐμὲ ἀδικῆσαι;” “Ὁμολογῶ,” ἔφη ὁ Ὀρόντᾱς, “ἀνάγκη γάρ.” ἐκ τούτου πάλιν ἠρώτησεν ὁ Κῦρος, “Ἔτι οὖν ἂν εἴης τῷ ἐμῷ ἀδελφῷ πολέμιος, ἐμοὶ δὲ φίλος καὶ πιστός;” ὁ δὲ ἀποκρίνεται, “Οὐδ᾿ εἰ εἴην, ὦ Κῦρε, σοί γ᾿ ἄν ποτε ἔτι δόξαιμι.”

NOTES.—1. ἀδικηθείς: here causal (495, 2), because you have suffered what wrong? but in line 3 concessive (495), although he had suffered no wrong.— 4. ἀδικῆσαι: infinitive in indirect discourse (469).—8. σοί γε: to you at any rate.—ποτὲ ἔτι: ever again.—δόξαιμι: sc. φίλος καὶ πιστὸς εἶναι.