LESSON XXXVI: Liquid Stems of the Consonant Declension.


345. Learn the declension of ἀγών, contest, ἡγεμών, guide, μήν, month, and ῥήτωρ, orator.

ἀγών, ὁ, Contest
Nominative Singularἀγών
Genitive Singularἀγῶν-ος
Dative Singularἀγῶν-ι
Accusative Singularἀγῶν-α
Vocative Singularἀγών
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualἀγῶν-ε
Genitive and Dative Dualἀγών-οιν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralἀγῶν-ες
Genitive Pluralἀγών-ων
Dative Pluralἀγῶσι
Accusative Pluralἀγῶν-ας
ἡγεμών, ὁ, Guide
Nominative Singularἡγεμών
Genitive Singularἡγεμόν-ος
Dative Singularἡγεμόν-ι
Accusative Singularἡγεμόν-α
Vocative Singularἡγεμών
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualἡγεμόν-ε
Genitive and Dative Dualἡγεμόν-οιν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralἡγεμόν-ες
Genitive Pluralἡγεμόν-ων
Dative Pluralἡγεμόσι
Accusative Pluralἡγεμόν-ας
μήν, ὁ, Month
Nominative Singularμήν
Genitive Singularμην-ός
Dative Singularμην-ί
Accusative Singularμῆν-α
Vocative Singularμήν
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualμῆν-ε
Genitive and Dative Dualμην-οῖν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralμῆν-ες
Genitive Pluralμην-ῶν
Dative Pluralμησί
Accusative Pluralμῆν-ας
ῥήτωρ, ὁ, Orator
Nominative Singularῥήτωρ
Genitive Singularῥήτορ-ος
Dative Singularῥήτορ-ι
Accusative Singularῥήτορ-α
Vocative Singularῥῆτορ
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualῥήτορ-ε
Genitive and Dative Dualῥητόρ-οιν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralῥήτορ-ες
Genitive Pluralῥητόρ-ων
Dative Pluralῥήτορ-σι
Accusative Pluralῥήτορ-ας

346. The nominative singular rejects ς and lengthens the vowel of the stem, if this is not already long. In the dative plural ν is dropped before σ. The vocative singular is like the nominative in oxytones; in other liquid stems it is like the stem.

347. Learn the declension of πατήρ, father, μήτηρ, mother, and ἀνήρ, man.

πατήρ, ὁ, Father
Nominative Singularπατήρ
Genitive Singular(πατέρ-ος) πατρ-ός
Dative Singular(πατέρ-ι) πατρ-ί
Accusative Singularπατέρ-α
Vocative Singularπάτερ
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualπατέρ-ε
Genitive and Dative Dualπατέρ-οιν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralπατέρ-ες
Genitive Pluralπατέρ-ων
Dative Pluralπατρά-σι
Accusative Pluralπατέρ-ας
μήτηρ, ἡ, Mother
Nominative Singularμήτηρ
Genitive Singular(μῃτέρ-ος) μητρ-ός
Dative Singular(μητέρ-ι) μητρ-ί
Accusative Singularμητέρ-α
Vocative Singularμῆτερ
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualμητέρ-ε
Genitive and Dative Dualμητέρ-οιν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralμητέρ-ες
Genitive Pluralμητέρ-ων
Dative Pluralμητρά-σι
Accusative Pluralμητέρ-ας
ἀνήρ, ὁ, Man
Nominative Singularἀνήρ
Genitive Singular(ἀνέρ-ος) ἀνδρ-ός
Dative Singular(ἀνέρ-ι) ἀνδρ-ί
Accusative Singular(ἀνέρ-α) ἄνδρ-α
Vocative Singularἄνερ
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dual(ἀνέρ-ε) ἄνδρ-ε
Genitive and Dative Dual(ἀνέρ-οιν) ἀνδρ-οῖν
Nominative and Vocative Plural(ἀνέρ-ες) ἄνδρ-ες
Genitive Plural(ἀνέρ-ων) ἀνδρ-ῶν
Dative Pluralἀνδρά-σι
Accusative Plural(ἀνέρ-ας) ἄνδρ-ας

348. 1. πατήρ and μήτηρ drop ε of the stem in the genitive and dative singular and accent the last syllable. Elsewhere they retain ε except in the dative plural, where ερ is changed to ρα; ε is accented except in the cases named and in the vocative singular, which is the mere stem and has recessive accent.

2. ἀνήρ drops ε wherever a vowel follows ερ and inserts δ in its place. δ is inserted also in the dative plural. The accent is thrown back except in the genitive and dative.


840. Verbs signifying to name, choose or appoint, make, think or regard, and the like, may take a predicate accusative besides the object accusative. Thus, πατέρα Ξενοφῶντα ἐκάλουν, they called Xenophon ‘father,’ φίλον ποιήσωμεν τοῦτον, let us make him our friend, τὸν σατράπην φίλον οὐ νομιεῖ, he will not regard the satrap as a friend.

841. A noun in the genitive may limit the meaning of another noun. This is called the attributive genitive and expresses various relations, most of which are denoted by of or by the possessive case in English. Thus:

1. Possession or other close relation, as τὰ βασιλέως βασίλεια, the King’s place. The Possessive Genitive.

2. The Subject of an action or feeling, as ὁ τῶν βαρβάρων φόβος, the fear of the barbarians, i.e. the fear which they felt. The Subjective Genitive.

3. The Object of an action or feeling, as ὁ τῶν Ἑλλήνων φόβος, the fear of the Greeks, i.e. the fear which they inspired. The Objective Genitive.

4. Material or Contents, including that of which anything consists, as πέντε μναῖ ἀργυρίου, five minas of silver. Genitive of Material.

5. Measure, of space, time, or value, as τριῶν ἡμερῶν ὁδός, a journey of three days, πέντε μηνῶν μισθός, five months’ pay. Genitive of Measure.

6. Cause or Origin, as μεγάλων ἀδικημάτων ὀργή, anger at great offenses. The Causal Genitive.

7. The Whole, after nouns denoting a part, as διὰ μέσου τῆς πόλεως, through the middle of the city. The Partitive Genitive.

852. The genitive often depends on a preposition included in a compound verb. Thus, τῶν ἄλλων προτῑμήσει, he will honor you above teh rest, καταψηφίζονται αὐτοῦ θάνατον, they condemn him to death (literally, they vote death against him).

864. The dative is used with all words implying likeness or unlikeness, agreement or disagreement, union, or approach. This includes verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and nouns. Thus, ἡ πορείᾱ ὁμοίᾱ φυγῇ ἐγίγνετο, their march came to be like flight, Μαρσύᾱς Ἀπόλλωνι ἤρισε, Marsyas contended with Apollo, ἐπολέμει τοῖς Θρᾳξί, he carried on war with the Thracians, ἕψονται Κύρῳ, they will follow Cyrus, ἅμα τῇ ἡμέρᾳ, at daybreak, πλησιάζει τοῖς πολεμίοις, he approaches the enemy.

870. The dative without a preposition often denotes the time when an action takes place. This is confined chiefly to nouns denoting day, night, month, or year, and to names of festivals. Thus, τῇ αὐτῇ ἡμέρᾳ, on the same day, τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ, on the following (day), μιᾷ νυκτὶ πάντες ἀπέθανον, all perished in a single night.


ἀγών, ῶνος, ὁ (cf. ἄγω)gathering, assembly, contest, games; ἀγῶνα ποιεῖν, hold games.
ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός, ὁman.
Ἕλλην, ηνος, ὁ (cf. Ἑλληνικός, Ἑλλάς)a Greek.
ἡγεμών, ὁνος, ὁ (cf. ἡγέομαι)leader, guide.
μήν, μηνός, ὁmonth.
μήτηρ, μητρός, ἡmother.
οἴκαδε (cf. οἰκίᾱ)adv., home, homeward.
πατήρ, πατρός, ὁfather.
ῥήτωρ, ορος, ὁspeaker, orator.
ψηφίζομαι (ψηφιδ), ψηφιοῦμαι etc., mid. dep., vote, decide.


1. ἀγῶνα δὲ ἐποιήσαντο οἱ Ἕλληνες.
2. ταύτῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ1 μεθ᾿ ἡγεμόνος ἐπορεύοντο οἴκαδε.
3. λέγει Κῦρος ὅτι ὁ ἀνὴρ ἐπὶ τῷ Εὐφράτῃ ποταμῷ ἐστιν.
4. ἡ δὲ μήτηρ Κῦρον ἀποπέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρχήν.
5. ἀλλὰ καὶ πατέρα2 Ξενοφῶντα ἐκάλουν.
6. καὶ ἀριθμὸν τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἐποίησεν ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ.
7. ἐψηφίσαντο δὲ οἱ Ἕλληνες πορεύεσθαι μετὰ τοῦ ἀνδρός.
8. καὶ ἔπεμψε Κῦρος πέντε μηνῶν3 μισθόν.
9. ἐν τοῖς Ἕλλησιν ἦσαν ῥήτορες ἀγαθοί.

NOTES.—1 Dative of the time when (870). —2 Predicate accusative (840). —3 Genitive of measure (841, 5). —4 Genitive of material (841, 4).

352. Menon’s clever Device to win the Favor of Cyrus.

Μένων δὲ πρὶν δῆλον εἶναι τί ποιήσουσιν οἱ ἄλλοι Ἕλληνες, πότερον ἕψονται Κύρῳ ἢ οὔ, συνέλεξε τὸ αὑτοῦ στράτευμα καὶ ἔλεξε τάδε· “Ἄνδρες, νῦν δεῖται Κῦρος ἕπεσθαι τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἐπὶ Ἀρταξέρξην. ἐγὼ οὖν κελεύω ὑμᾶς (you) εὐθὺς διαβαίνειν τὸν ποταμόν. ἢν μὲν γὰρ ψηφίσωνται ἕπεσθαι, ὑμᾶς τῶν ἄλλων προτῑμήσει στρατιωτῶν Κῦρος· ἢν δὲ ἀποψηφίσωνται οἱ ἄλλοι, πορευσόμεθα ἅπαντες οἵκαδε πάλιν.”

NOTES. —1. πρὶν δῆλον εἶναι: before it was evident. —2. πότερον . . . ἤ: whether . . . or. —Κύρῳ: the dative follows ἕπομαι (864). —οὔ: accented at the end of a sentence. —συνέλεξε: see συλλέγω. —αὑτοῦ: cf. 267, 4. —7. στρατιωτῶν: dependent on the preposition included in the compound verb (852).