LESSON XXX: Contract Nouns and Adjectives of the Vowel Declension.

Contract Adjectives of the Vowel Declension

286. Most adjectives in εος and οος suffer contraction.

287. Learn the declension of χρῡσοῦς, golden, ἁπλοῦς, simple, sincere, and ἀργυροῦς, of silver.

χρῡσοῦς, GOLDEN.
Masculine Nominative Singular(χρύσεος) χρῡσοῦς
Masculine Genitive Singular(χρῡσέου) χρῡσοῦ
Masculine Dative Singular(χρῡσέῳ) χρῡσῷ
Masculine Accusative Singular(χρύσεον) χρῡσοῦν
Masculine Nominative and Accusative Dual(χρῡσέω) χρῡσώ
Masculine Genitive and Dative Dual(χρῡσέοιν) χρῡσοῖν
Masculine Nominative Plural(χρύσεοι) χρῡσοῖ
Masculine Genitive Plural(χρῡσέων) χρῡσῶν
Masculine Dative Plural(χρῡσέοις) χρῡσοῖς
Masculine Accusative Plural(χρῡσέους) χρῡσοῦς
χρῡσοῦς, GOLDEN.
Feminine Nominative Singular(χρῡσέᾱ) χρῡσῆ
Feminine Genitive Singular(χρῡσέᾱς) χρῡσῆς
Feminine Dative Singular(χρῡσέᾳ) χρῡσῇ
Feminine Accusative Singular(χρῡσέᾱν) χρῡσῆν
Feminine Nominative and Accusative Dual(χρῡσέᾱ) χρῡσᾶ
Feminine Genitive and Dative Dual(χρῡσέαιν) χρῡσαῖν
Feminine Nominative Plural(χρύσεαι) χρῡσαῖ
Feminine Genitive Plural(χρῡσέων) χρῡσῶν
Feminine Dative Plural(χρῡσέαις) χρῡσαῖς
Feminine Accusative Plural(χρῡσέᾱς) χρῡσᾶς
χρῡσοῦς, GOLDEN.
Neuter Nominative Singular(χρύσεον) χρῡσοῦν
Neuter Genitive Singular(χρῡσέον) χρῡσοῦ
Neuter Dative Singular(χρῡσέῳ) χρῡσῷ
Neuter Accusative Singular(χρόσεον) χρῡσοῦν
Neuter Nominative and Accusative Dual(χρῡσέω) χρῡσώ
Neuter Genitive and Dative Dual(χρῡσέοιν) χρῡσοῖν
Neuter Nominative Plural(χρύσεα) χρῡσᾶ
Neuter Genitive Plural(χρῡσέων) χρῡσῶν
Neuter Dative Plural(χρῡσέοις) χρῡσοῖς
Neuter Accusative Plural(χρύσεα) χρῡσᾶ
Masculine Nominative Singular(ἁπλόος) ἁπλοῦς
Masculine Genitive Singular(ἁπλόου) ἁπλοῦ
Masculine Dative Singular(ἁπλόῳ) ἁπλῷ
Masculine Accusative Singular(ἁπλόον) ἁπλοῦν
Masculine Nominative and Accusative Dual(ἁπλόω) ἁπλώ
Masculine Genitive and Dative Dual(ἁπλόοιν) ἁπλοῖν
Masculine Nominative Plural(ἁπλόοι) ἁπλοῖ
Masculine Genitive Plural(ἁπλόων) ἁπλῶν
Masculine Dative Plural(ἁπλόοις) ἁπλοῖς
Masculine Accusative Plural(ἁπλόους) ἁπλοῦς
Feminine Nominative Singular(ἁπλόη) ἁπλῆ
Feminine Genitive Singular(ἁπλόης) ἁπλῆς
Feminine Dative Singular(ἁπλόῃ) ἁπλῇ
Feminine Accusative Singular(ἁπλόην) ἁπλῆν
Feminine Nominative and Accusative Dual(ἁπλόᾱ) ἁπλᾶ
Feminine Genitive and Dative Dual(ἁπλόαιν) ἁπλαῖν
Feminine Nominative Plural(ἁπλόαι) ἁπλαῖ
Feminine Genitive Plural(ἁπλόων) ἁπλῶν
Feminine Dative Plural(ἁπλόαις) ἁπλαῖς
Feminine Accusative Plural(ἁπλόᾱς) ἁπλᾶς
Neuter Nominative Singular(ἁπλόον) ἁπλοῦν
Neuter Genitive Singular(ἁπλόου) ἁπλοῦ
Neuter Dative Singular(ἁπλόῳ) ἁπλῷ
Neuter Accusative Singular(ἁπλόον) ἁπλοῦν
Neuter Nominative and Accusative Dual(ἁπλόω) ἁπλώ
Neuter Genitive and Dative Dual(ἁπλόοιν) ἁπλοῖν
Neuter Nominative Plural(ἁπλόα) ἁπλᾶ
Neuter Genitive Plural(ἁπλόων) ἁπλῶν
Neuter Dative Plural(ἁπλόις) ἁπλοῖς
Neuter Accusative Plural(ἁπλόα) ἁπλᾶ
ἀργυροῦς, OF SILVER
Masculine Nominative Singular(ἀργύρεος) ἀργυροῦς
Masculine Genitive Singular(ἀργυρέου) ἀργυροῦ
Masculine Dative Singular(ἀργυρέῳ) ἀργυρῷ
Masculine Accusative Singular(ἀργύρεον) ἀργυροῦν
Masculine Nominative and Accusative Dual(ἀργυρέω) ἀργυρώ
Masculine Genitive and Dative Dual(ἀργυρέοιν) ἀργυροῖν
Masculine Nominative Plural(ἀργύρεοι) ἀργυροῖ
Masculine Genitive Plural(ἀργυρέων) ἀργυρῶν
Masculine Dative Plural(ἀργυρέοις) ἀργυροῖς
Masculine Accusative Plural(ἀργυρέους) ἀργυροῦς
ἀργυροῦς, OF SILVER
Feminine Nominative Singular(ἀργυρέᾱ) ἀργυρᾶ
Feminine Genitive Singular(ἀργυρέᾱς) ἀργυρᾶς
Feminine Dative Singular(ἀργυρέᾳ) ἀργυρᾷ
Feminine Accusative Singular(ἀργυρέᾱν) ἀργυρᾶν
Feminine Nominative and Accusative Dual(ἀργυρέᾱ) ἀργυρᾶ
Feminine Genitive and Dative Dual(ἀργυρέαιν) ἀργυραῖν
Feminine Nominative Plural(ἀργύρεαι) ἀργυραῖ
Feminine Genitive Plural(ἀργυρέων) ἀργυρῶν
Feminine Dative Plural(ἀργυρέαις) ἀργυραῖς
Feminine Accusative Plural(ἀργυρέᾱς) ἀργυρᾶς
ἀργυροῦς, OF SILVER
Neuter Nominative Singular(ἀργύρεον) ἀργυροῦν
Neuter Genitive Singular(ἀργυρέου) ἀργυροῦ
Neuter Dative Singular(ἀργυρέῳ) ἀργυρῷ
Neuter Accusative Singular(ἀργύρεον) ἀργυροῦν
Neuter Nominative and Accusative Dual(ἀργυρέω) ἀργυρώ
Neuter Genitive and Dative Dual(ἀργυρέοιν) ἀργυροῑν
Neuter Nominative Plural(ἀργύρεα) ἀργυρᾶ
Neuter Genitive Plural(ἀργυρέων) ἀργυρῶν
Neuter Dative Plural(ἀργυρέοις) ἀργυροῖς
Neuter Accusative Plural(ἀργύρεα) ἀργυρᾶ

Notes on the Formation of Contract Adjectives of the Vowel Declension

288. These adjectives, in their contracted forms (which alone occur in Attic Greek), differ from ἀγαθός and ἄξιος (750) only in the following particulars: 1) they have οῦς and οῦν for ος and ον; 2) no distinct vocative forms occur; 3) they circumflex the final syllable throughout, except in the nominative and accusative masculine and neuter dual.

289. Compound adjectives in οος are of two terminations (130) and keep the accent on the same syllable as in the contracted nominative singular, as (εὔνοος) εὔνους, (εὔνοον) εὔνουν, well-disposed, genitive (εὐνόου) εὔνου, etc.

Contract Nouns of the Vowel Declension

290. Some contract nouns are declined like the adjectives in 287.

291. Learn the declension of νοῦς, mind, μνᾶ, mina, and γῆ, earth.

νοῦς, ὁ, MIND
Nominative Singular(νόος) νοῦς
Genitive Singular(νόου) νοῦ
Dative Singular(νόῳ) νῷ
Accusative Singular(νόον) νοῦν
Vocative Singular(νόε) νοῦ
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dual(νόω) νώ
Genitive and Dative Dual(νόοιν) νοῖν
Nominative and Vocative Plural(νόοι) νοῖ
Genitive Plural(νόων) νῶν
Dative Plural(νόοις) νοῖς
Accusative Plural(νόους) νοῦς
μνᾶ, ἡ, MINA
Nominative Singular(μνάᾱ) μνᾶ
Genitive Singular(μνάᾱς) μνᾶς
Dative Singular(μνάᾳ) μνᾷ
Accusative Singular(μνάᾱν) μνᾶν
Vocative Singular(μνάᾱ) μνᾶ
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dual(μνάᾱ) μνᾶ
Genitive and Dative Dual(μνάαιν) μναῖν
Nominative and Vocative Plural(μνάαι) μναῖ
Genitive Plural(μναῶν) μνῶν
Dative Plural(μνάαις) μναῖς
Accusative Plural(μνάᾱς) μνᾶς
γῆ, ἡ, EARTH
Nominative Singular(γέᾱ) γῆ
Genitive Singular(γέᾱς) γῆς
Dative Singular(γέᾳ) γῇ
Accusative Singular(γέᾱν) γῆν
Vocative Singular(γέᾱ) γῆ


862. The dative with εἰμί, γίγνομαι, and similar verbs may denote the possessor. Thus, στρατιῶται Κύρῳ ἦσαν ἀγαθοί, Cyrus had brave soldiers. Dative of the Possessor.

864. The dative is used with all words implying likeness or unlikeness, agreement or disagreement, union, or approach. This includes verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and nouns. Thus, ἡ πορείᾱ ὁμοίᾱ φυγῇ ἐγίγνετο, their march came to be like flight, Μαρσύᾱς Ἀπόλλωνι ἤρισε, Marsyas contended with Apollo, ἐπολέμει τοῖς Θρᾳξί, he carried on war with the Thracians, ἕψονται Κύρῳ, they will follow Cyrus, ἅμα τῇ ἡμέρᾳ, at daybreak, πλησιάζει τοῖς πολεμίοις, he approaches the enemy.

834. The accusative of specification may be joined with a verb, adjective, noun, or even a whole sentence, to denote a part, character, or quality to which the expression refers. Thus, τὰ πολέμια ἀγαθός, skilled in matters pertaining to war, ὁ ποταμός ἐστι τὸ εὖρος πλέθρου, the river is one hundred feet in width.


ἀκῑνάκης, ου, ὁshort sword.
ἁπλοῦς, ῆ, οῦνsimple, sincere.
ἀργυροῦς, ᾶ, οῦνof silver, silver.
γῆ, γῆς, ἡearth, ground, land.
ἕκαστος, η, ονeach, every.
εὔ-νους, ουν (εὖ + νοῦς)well-disposed.
μνᾶ, μνᾶς, ἡmina The next to the highest denomination in Attic silver money, although never actually minted as a coin, one sixtieth of a talent.
νοῦς, νοῦ, ὁmind; ἐν νῷ ἔχω, have in mind, intend.
στρεπτός, οῦ, ὁnecklace, collar..
χαλκοῦς, ῆ, οῦνof bronze, bronze.
χρῦσοῦς, ῆ, οῦνof gold, gold.


1. εὖνοι δὲ Κύρῳ οἱ ἄρχοντές εἰσιν.
2. φίλοις εὔνοις Κῦρος πιστὸς ἦν.
3. ἁπλοῦς ἦν ὁ τοῦ φύλακος λόγος.
4. τὰ δὲ δῶρα ἦσαν στρεπτοὶ χρῡσοῖ.
5. Κῦρος ὁπλίτῃ ἑκάστῳ πέμψει πέντε μνᾶς.
6. τί (what) ἐν νῷ ἔχετε;
7. τότε ἐν τῇ γῇ πρῶτοι ἦσαν οὗτοι καὶ ἐν τῇ θαλάττῃ.
8. αἱ δὲ πέλται χαλκαῖ ἦσαν.
9. δῶρα1 δ᾿ αὐτῷ ἐπέμψαμεν στρεπτὸν χρῡσοῦν καὶ ἀκῑνάκην ἀργυροῦν.
10. ἐπολέμει τοῖς Θρᾳξὶ2 καὶ κατὰ γῆν καὶ κατὰ θάλατταν.

NOTE.—1 as a gift. For the accusative case, see 834. 2 with the Thracians. For the case, see 864.

295. Cyrus promises additional Pay. Syennesis becomes friendly.

τοῖς δὲ στρατιώταις ὑποψίᾱ μέν ἐστιν ὅτι ἄγει πρὸς Ἀρταξέρξην, ὅμως δὲ ἕπονται. προσαιτοῦσι δὲ μισθόν. ὁ δὲ Κῦρος ὑπισχνεῖται ἑκάστῳ στρατιώτῃ ἀντὶ δᾱρεικοῦ τρία ἡμιδᾱρεικά· ὅτι δὲ ἐπὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἐν νῷ ἔχει πορεύεσθαι ἐνταῦθα ἀκούει οὐδεὶς (nobody) ἔν γε τῷ φανερῷ.

ἐν δὲ Ταρσοῖς Συέννεσις μὲν ἔδωκε (gave) Κύρῳ χρήματα εἰς τὴν στρατιάν, Κῦρος δὲ ἐκείνῳ ἵππον καὶ στρεπτὸν χρῡσοῦν καὶ ψέλια καὶ ἀκῑνάκην χρῡσοῦν.

NOTES.—1. τοῖς στρατιώταις: dative of possessor (862), the soldiers have their suspicions, i.e. they suspect.— 3. τρία: Latin tria.—4. ἡμιδᾱρεικά: ἡμιequals Latin sēmi-.—5. ἔν γε τῷ φανερῷ: at least (γέ, enclitic) publicly.— 8. ψέλια: for a picture of the ψέλιον, armlet, see No. 89.