LESSON XXVI: Lingual Mute Stems of the Consonant Declension.


249. Learn the declension of νύξ, night, ἀσπίς shield, ὄρνῖς, bird, γέρων, old man, and ἅρμα, chariot.

νύξ, ἡ. Night
Nominative Singularνύξ
Genitive Singularνυκτ-ός
Dative Singularνυκτ-ί
Accusative Singularνύκτ-α
Vocative Singularνύξ
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualνύκτ-ε
Genitive and Dative Dualνυκτ-οῖν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralνύκτ-ες
Genitive Pluralνυκτ-ῶν
Dative Pluralνυξί
Accusative Pluralνύκτ-ας
ἀσπίς, ἡ. Shield
Nominative Singularἀσπίς
Genitive Singularἀσπίδ-ος
Dative Singularἀσπίδ-ι
Accusative Singularἀσπίδ-α
Vocative Singularἀσπί
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualἀσπίδ-ε
Genitive and Dative Dualἀσπίδ-οιν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralἀσπίδ-ες
Genitive Pluralἀσπίδ-ων
Dative Pluralἀσπί-σι
Accusative Pluralἀσπίδ-ας
ὄρνῑς, ὁ, ἡ. Bird
Nominative Singularὄρνῑς
Genitive Singularὄρνῑθ-ος
Dative Singularὄρνῑθ-ι
Accusative Singularὄρνῑν
Vocative Singularὄρνῑς
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualὄρνῑθ-ε
Genitive and Dative Dualὀρνίθ-οιν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralὄρνῑθ-ες
Genitive Pluralὀρνίθ-ων
Dative Pluralὄρνῑσι
Accusative Pluralὄρνῑθ-ας
γέρων, ὁ. Old Man
Nominative Singularγέρων
Genitive Singularγέροντ-ος
Dative Singularγέροντ-ι
Accusative Singularγέροντ-α
Vocative Singularγέρον
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualγέροντ-ε
Genitive and Dative Dualγερόντ-οιν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralγέροντ-ες
Genitive Pluralγερόντ-ων
Dative Pluralγέρουσι
Accusative Pluralγέροντ-ας
ἅρμα, τό Chariot
Nominative Singularἅρμα
Genitive Singularἅρματ-ος
Dative Singularἅρματ-ι
Accusative Singularἅρμα
Vocative Singularἅρμα
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Dualἅρματ-ε
Genitive and Dative Dualἁρμάτ-οιν
Nominative and Vocative Pluralἅρματ-α
Genitive Pluralἁρμάτ-ων
Dative Pluralἅρμασι
Accusative Pluralἅρματ-α

Notes on the Formation of Lingual Mute Stems of the Consonant Declension

250. In the nominative singular and dative plural of the first three nouns the final lingual (τ δ θ) of the stem is dropped before ς. νύξ therefore stands for νυκτ-ς, νυκ-ς, κς becoming ξ. So νυκτ-σι, νυκ-σι, νυξί.

251. The fourth noun γέρων rejects σ in the nominative, and lengthens ο to ω. Final τ is dropped, since this letter cannot stand at the end of a word. In the dative plural both ν and τ are dropped before σ, and o is lengthened to ου.

252. In the accusative singular most masculines and feminines add α to consonant stems, but nouns in ις, except oxytones (25), drop the final τ δ θ of the stem and add ν. Thus ὄρνῑς (stem ὀρνῑθ), ὄρνῑν; but ἀσπίς, oxytone (stem ἀσπιδ), ἀσπίδα.

253. The vocative singular of most masculines and feminines with mute stems is like the nominative, but the vocative singular of stems in ιδ, and of those in ντ except of oxytones, is the mere stem. Final δ or τ is dropped, since neither of these letters can stand at the end of a word. Thus, vocative ἀσπί, γέρον.

254. The nominative, accusative, and vocative singular of neuters, such as ἅρμα, are the simple stem. Final τ is dropped. In the dative plural τ is dropped before σ.


849. The genitive (as ablative) may denote that from which anything is separated or distinguished. On this principle the genitive follows verbs denoting to remove, restrain, release, cease, fail, differ, give up, and the like. Thus, διέσχον ἀλλήλων ὡς τριάκοντα στάδια, they were about thirty furlongs distant from one another, ἐπέσχον τῆς πορείᾱς, they desisted from marching, πολέμου ἡδέως παύσεται, he will be glad to stop fighting.

851. The genitive often denotes a cause, especially with verbs expressing emotions, such as admiration, wonder, affection, hatred, pity, anger, envy, or revenge. Sometimes it denotes the source. Thus, τῆς ἐλευθερίᾱς ὑμᾶς εὐδαιμονίζω, I count you happy because of your freedom, τοῖς θεοῖς χάριν ἔχουσι τῆς νίκης, they are grateful to the gods for victory, τούτων ἐμοὶ χαλεπαίνετε, you are angry with me for this, ἤκουσε ταῦτα τοῦ ἀγγέλλου, he heard this from the messenger.

854. The genitive may denote the time within which anything takes place. Thus, ὡρμᾶτο τῆς νυκτός, he set out in the night,ταῦτα τῆς ἡμέρᾱς ἐγένετο, this happened during the day.

870. The dative without a preposition often denotes the time when an action takes place. This is confined chiefly to nouns denoting day, night, month, or year, and to names of festivals. Thus, τῇ αὐτῇ ἡμέρᾳ, on the same day, τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ, on the following (day), μιᾷ νυκτὶ πάντες ἀπέθανον, all perished in a single night.


ἅρμα, ατος, τόchariot.
ἀσπίς, ίδος, ἡshield.
γέρων, οντος, ὁold man.
ἐλπίς, ίδος, ἡ hope.
νίκη, ης, ἡvictory.
νύξ, νυκτός, ἡnight.
ὄρνῑς, ῑθος, ὁ, ἡbird.
στόμα, ατος, τόmouth; of an army, van.
στράτευμα, ατος, τό (cf.στρατιά, στρατιώτης)army.
χάρις, ιτος, ἡgrace, favor, gratitude;
χάριν ἔχωbe or feel grateful.


1. ἐν δὲ ταῖς σκηναῖς ἦσαν ἀσπίδες.
2. ἔστι δὲ στράτευμα Περσικὸν ἐν τῷ παραδεισῳ.
3. τοῖς οὖν θεοῖς χάριν εἶχον τῆς νίκης1.
4. τὴν γέφῡραν ταύτην λέλυκεν ὁ σατράπης τῆς νυκτός2.
5. τῷ δὲ γέροντι τούτῳ ἐκεῖνοι πολέμιοι ἦσαν.
6. ἐπορεύοντο δὲ εὐθὺς ἐπὶ τὸ τοῦ ποταμοῦ στόμα.
7. σὺν τοῖς θεοῖς καλαὶ τῷ στρατεύματι ἐλπίδες εἰσὶ νίκης.
8. ἐν δὲ ταῖς οἰκίαις ἦσαν ὄρνῑθες.
9. ἔχομεν καὶ ὅπλα καὶ ἅρματα καὶ ἱκανὰ τὰ ἐπιτήδεια.

NOTES.—1 for victory, a genitive of cause (851).—2 Genitive of the time within which (854).—3 Genitive of separation (849).

258. Cyrus reaches Tarsus, which the Troops destroy.

τῇ δ᾿ ὑστεραίᾳ ἧκεν ἄγγελος λέγων ὅτι πέφευγε Συέννεσις. Κῦρος οὖν ἀναβαίνει ἐπὶ τὰ ἄκρα, ἐντεῦθεν δὲ καταβαίνει εἰς πεδίον καλόν. διὰ δὲ τούτου ἐλαύνει παρασάγγᾱς πέντε καὶ εἴκοσιν εἰς Ταρσούς, ἔνθα ἦν βασίλεια. ἐν δὲ τῇ ὑπερβολῇ τῇ εἰς τὸ πεδίον κατεκόπησαν, ὡς λέγεται, ἑκατὸν ὁπλῖται τοῦ Μένωνος στρατεύματος ὑπὸ τῶν Κιλίκων. οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι ἐπεὶ ἧκον, Ταρσοὺς διήρπασαν διὰ τὸν ὄλεθρον τῶν στρατιωτῶν.

NOTES.—1. τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ: the next (day), ἡμέρᾳ being understood, a dative of the time when (870).—πέφευγε: second perfect of φεύγω, flee.—2. ἀνα-βαίνει: the verb βαίνω means go.