LESSON XXIV: Prepositions

Case Usage With Prepositions

226. Prepositions are used with the genitive, dative, and accusative. Some prepositions are used with only one of these cases, others with two, others with all three.

227. The prepositions ἀντί, instead of, ἀπό, off from, from, Latin ab, ἐξ, out of, from Latin ex, and πρό, before, Latin prô, take only the genitive. ἐξ signifies from within, out of, ἀπό, off from, away from.

228. ἐν, in, Latin in with the ablative, and σύν, with, Latin cum, take only the dative.

229. ἀνά, up, and εἰς, into,Latin in with the accusative, take only the accusative.

230. ἀμφί, about, διά, through, on account of, κατά, down, μετά, in company with, after, and ὑπέρ, over, Latin super, take the genitive and accusative.

231. ἐπί, on, upon, παρά, alongside of, beside, περί, round about, πρός, over against, at, to, and ὑπό, under, Latin sub, take the genitive, dative, and accusative.

232. In general, the genitive with prepositions denotes that from which something proceeds, the dative that inor by which something is or takes place, the accusative that towards, over, along, or upon which motion occurs, as:

233. The chief relations expressed by the prepositions are place and time; but they express also cause, origin, means, agency, condition, purpose, and other important ideas. The original force of the preposition shades off into many meanings.

234. Prepositions are used in forming compound verbs (93).

a. In determining the force of a preposition in any sentence, the pupil should study the connection of the preposition with the other words in the sentence, or with the verb to which it is prefixed, keeping the original meaning of the preposition in mind. The general vocabulary must be constantly consulted.

Grammar Notes

847. The genitive follows verbs signifying to rule, lead, or direct. Thus, τῶν ὁπλῑτῶν ἄρχει, he commands the hoplites, Κλέαρχος τοῦ δεξιοῦ κέρως ἡγεῖται, Clearchus leads the right wing.

854. The genitive may denote the time within which anything takes place. Thus, ὡρμᾶτο τῆς νυκτός, he set out in the night,ταῦτα τῆς ἡμέρᾱς ἐγένετο, this happened during the day.


ἀλλάconj., but, yet, stronger than δέ.
ἀμφίprep.: with gen., about, concerning; with acc., about, round.
ἀνάprep. with acc., up, up along, up to, with numerals, at the rate of.
ἄρχω, ἄρξω, ἦρξα, ἦργμαι, ἤρχθην (cf. ἀρχή)be first, rule, reign over, command; mid., begin.
αὖadv., again, in turn, moreover.
εἶταadv., then, thereupon.
εὐθύςadv., at once, immediately.
περίprep.: with gen., about, concerning; with dat., round, about; with acc., about, all round, round.
πρόprep. with gen., before, in front of, for.
πρῶτος, η, ον (cf. πρό)first, foremost;πρῶτον as adv., first.
ὑπέρprep.: with gen., over, above, in behalf of; with acc., over, above.


1. σύμμαχοι ἀγαθοί εἰσιν οἱ ἀμφὶ Κῦρον1.
2. οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι ἐθήρευον τὰ θηρία ἀπὸ ἵππων.
3. οἱ Κύρου φίλοι ἐστρατευμένοι εἰσὶν ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ.
4. ταῦτα περὶ τῆς στρατιᾶς ἄγγελοι παρὰ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ ἔλεξαν Κύρῳ πρὸ τῆς μάχης.
5. μετὰ τοῦτο πορεύονται ἑπτὰ σταθμοὺς ἀνὰ πέντε παρασάγγᾱς τῆς ἡμέρᾱς2 παρὰ τὸν ποταμόν.
6. Κῦρος οὐκ ἔστιν ἐπὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ, ἀλλ᾿ ἄξιός ἐστιν ἄρχειν ἀντ᾿ ἐκείνου.
7. ἐκεῖνος δὲ τῶν ὁπλῑτῶν3 ἦρχεν· οὗτοι δ᾿ αὖ πρὸ αὐτοῦ Ἀρταξέρξου τεταγμένοι ἦσαν.
8. Κῦρος ἐκέλευσε τὸν Κλέαρχον πρῶτον μὲν τάττειν τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς, εἶτα δὲ ἄγειν διὰ τοῦ πεδίου.
9. ὁ δὲ σατράπης πορεύεται εὐθὺς παρὰ τὸν Ἀρταξέρξην, καὶ στρατιώτᾱς ἔχει ἀμφὶ τοὺς τριᾱκοσίους.

NOTES.—1those about Cyrus, i.e. his attendants.2 each day, genitive of the time within which (854). —3 The genitive follows ἄρχω (847).—4I.e. those about Cyrus.5 Dative without a preposition.

238. The Greeks inspire the Barbarians with Fear.

ἐξετάζει οὖν ὁ Κῦρος πρῶτον μὲν τοὺς βαρβάρους· οἱ δὲ παρελαύνουσι τεταγμένοι κατὰ ἴλᾱς· εἶτα δὲ τοὺς ἄλλους στρατιώτᾱς. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἔπεμψεν ἄγγελον παρὰ τοὺς στρατηγοὺς τοὺς Ἑλληνικοὺς καὶ ἐκέλευσε πορεύεσθαι ὥσπερ εἰς μάχην· οἱ δὲ ταῦτα ἔλεξαν τοῖς στρατιώταις· καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐσάλπιγξεν ὁ σαλπικτής, προβάλλονται τὰ ὅπλα καὶ σὺν κραυγῇ τρέχουσιν ἐπὶ τὰς σκηνάς. τοῦτο δὲ τοῖς βαρβάροις φόβον παρεῖχε.

NOTES.—2. οἱ δέ: and they, the article being used as a demonstrative. —τεταγμένοι: having been drawn up, perfect passive participle.—κατὰ ἴλᾱς: by companies (ἴλη).—6. ἐσάλπιγξεν: aorist of σαλπίζω. For a picture of a trumpeter (σαλπικτής), see No. 55.—8. παρ-εῖχε: caused (παρ-έχω).