LESSON XVII: Demonstrative Pronouns

οὗτος, this, ὅδε, this, ἐκεῖνος, that, and αὐτός, self.

154. The principal demonstrative pronouns are οὗτος, this, ὅδε, this,and ἐκεῖνος, that.

155. The pronoun αὐτός is properly intensive, self, Latin ipse.

156. Learn the declension of οὗτος, ὅδε, ἐκεῖνος, and αὐτός.

Declension of οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο this.

οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο this
Masculine Nominative Singularοὗτος
Masculine Genitive Singularτούτου
Masculine Dative Singularτούτῳ
Masculine Accusative Singularτοῦτον
Masculine Nominative and Accusative Dualτούτω
Masculine Genitive and Dative Dualτούτοιν
Masculine Nominative Pluralοὗτοι
Masculine Genitive Pluralτούτων
Masculine Dative Pluralτούτοις
Masculine Accusative Pluralτούτους
οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο this
Feminine Nominative Singularαὕτη
Feminine Genitive Singularταύτης
Feminine Dative Singularταύτῃ
Feminine Accusative Singularταύτην
Feminine Nominative and Accusative Dualτούτω
Feminine Genitive and Dative Dualτούτοιν
Feminine Nominative Pluralαὗται
Feminine Genitive Pluralτούτων
Feminine Dative Pluralταύταις
Feminine Accusative Pluralταύτᾶς
οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο this
Neuter Nominative Singularτοῦτο
Neuter Genitive Singularτούτου
Neuter Dative Singularτούτῳ
Neuter Accusative Singularτοῦτο
Neuter Nominative and Accusative Dualτούτω
Neuter Genitive and Dative Dualτούτοιν
Neuter Nominative Pluralταῦτα
Neuter Genitive Pluralτούτων
Neuter Dative Pluralτούτοις
Neuter Accusative Pluralταῦτα

Declension of ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε this

ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε this
Masculine Nominative Singularὅδε
Masculine Genitive Singularτοῦδε
Masculine Dative Singularτῷδε
Masculine Accusative Singularτόνδε
Masculine Nominative and Accusative Dualτώδε
Masculine Genitive and Dative Dualτοῖνδε
Masculine Nominative Pluralοἵδε
Masculine Genitive Pluralτῶνδε
Masculine Dative Pluralτοῖσδε
Masculine Accusative Pluralτούσδε
ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε this
Feminine Nominative Singularἥδε
Feminine Genitive Singularτῆσδε
Feminine Dative Singularτῇδε
Feminine Accusative Singularτήνδε
Feminine Nominative and Accusative Dualτώδε
Feminine Genitive and Dative Dualτοῖνδε
Feminine Nominative Pluralαἴδε
Feminine Genitive Pluralτῶνδε
Feminine Dative Pluralταῖσδε
Feminine Accusative Pluralτάσδε
ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε this
Neuter Nominative Singularτόδε
Neuter Genitive Singularτοῦδε
Neuter Dative Singularτῷδε
Neuter Accusative Singularτόδε
Neuter Nominative and Accusative Dualτώδε
Neuter Genitive and Dative Dualτοῖνδε
Neuter Nominative Pluralτάδε
Neuter Genitive Pluralτῶνδε
Neuter Dative Pluralτοῖσδε
Neuter Accusative Pluralτάδε

Declension of ἐκεῖνος, ἐκείνη, ἐκεῖνο that

ἐκεῖνος, ἐκείνη, ἐκεῖνο that
Masculine Nominative Singularἐκεῖνος
Masculine Genitive Singularἐκείνου
Masculine Dative Singularἐκείνῳ
Masculine Accusative Singularἐκεῖνον
Masculine Nominative and Accusative Dualἐκείνω
Masculine Genitive and Dative Dualἐκίνοιν
Masculine Nominative Pluralἐκεῖνοι
Masculine Genitive Pluralἐκείνων
Masculine Dative Pluralἐκείνοις
Masculine Accusative Pluralἐκείνους
ἐκεῖνος, ἐκείνη, ἐκεῖνο that
Feminine Nominative Singularἐκείνη
Feminine Genitive Singularἐκίνης
Feminine Dative Singularἐκίνῃ
Feminine Accusative Singularἐκείνην
Feminine Nominative and Accusative Dualἐκείνω
Feminine Genitive and Dative Dualἐκείνοιν
Feminine Nominative Pluralἐκεῖναι
Feminine Genitive Pluralἐκείνων
Feminine Dative Pluralἐκείναις
Feminine Accusative Pluralἐκείνᾶς
ἐκεῖνος, ἐκείνη, ἐκεῖνο that
Neuter Nominative Singularἐκεῖνο
Neuter Genitive Singularἐκείνου
Neuter Dative Singularἐκείνῳ
Neuter Accusative Singularἐκεῖνο
Neuter Nominative and Accusative Dualἐκείνω
Neuter Genitive and Dative Dualἐκίνοιν
Neuter Nominative Pluralἐκεῖνα
Neuter Genitive Pluralἐκείνων
Neuter Dative Pluralἐκείνοις
Neuter Accusative Pluralἐκεῖνα

Declension of αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό self

αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό self
Neuter Nominative Singularαὐτός
Neuter Genitive Singularαὐτοῦ
Neuter Dative Singularαὐτῷ
Neuter Accusative Singularαὐτόν
Neuter Nominative and Accusative Dualαὐτώ
Neuter Genitive and Dative Dualαὐτοῖν
Neuter Nominative Pluralαὐτοί
Neuter Genitive Pluralαὐτῶν
Neuter Dative Pluralαὐτοῖς
Neuter Accusative Pluralαὐτούς
αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό self
Neuter Nominative Singularαὐτή
Neuter Genitive Singularαὐτῆς
Neuter Dative Singularαὐτῇ
Neuter Accusative Singularαὐτήν
Neuter Nominative and Accusative Dualαὐτά
Neuter Genitive and Dative Dualαὐταῖν
Neuter Nominative Pluralαὐταί
Neuter Genitive Pluralαὐτῶν
Neuter Dative Pluralαὐταῖς
Neuter Accusative Pluralαὐτάς
αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό self
Neuter Nominative Singularαὐτό
Neuter Genitive Singularαὐτοῦ
Neuter Dative Singularαὐτῷ
Neuter Accusative Singularαὐτό
Neuter Nominative and Accusative Dualαὐτώ
Neuter Genitive and Dative Dualαὐτοῖν
Neuter Nominative Pluralαὐτά
Neuter Genitive Pluralαὐτῶν
Neuter Dative Pluralαὐτοῖς
Neuter Accusative Pluralαὐτά

Formation and Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns

157. These pronouns are declined, in the main, like adjectives of the vowel declension (126 ff.); ὅδε is declined like the article (758), with the enclitic suffix δε added.

158. When a demonstrative pronoun agrees with a noun, it takes the article, and stands either before or after both article and noun, not between them.

159. ἐκεῖνος, that (yonder), is used of something remote; ὅδε, this (here), of something near or present; οὗτος is used in referring to something which has already been mentioned; ὅδε, in referring to something which is about to be mentioned.

Τhus: οὗτος ὁ στρατηγὸς or ὁ στρατηγὸς οὗτος ἀγαθὸς ἦν, this general (one already mentioned) was brave; ἔλεξε τάδε, he said this, i.e. he spoke as follows; ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ κώμῃ θύσομεν, we will offer sacrifice in that village (yonder).

160. In all its cases αὐτός may mean self; when preceded by the article it means same; in its oblique cases it may mean him, her, it, them.

Thus: αὐτὸς ὁ στρατηγὸς ἔλεξε ταῦτα, the general himself said this, but ὁ αὐτὸς στρατηγὸς ἔλεξε ταῦτα, the same general said this; θύσω αὐτός, I myself will offer sacrifice; οἱ στρατιῶται αὐτοὺς ἔπαιον, the soldiers struck them.


Ἀρίστιππος,ου, ὁAristippus.
αὐτός, ή, όpron., self, same, him, her, it.
ἐκεῖνος, η, οpron., that.
ἐπιβουλή, ῆς, ἡ (cf. ἐπιβουλεύω)plot, scheme, design.
Θετταλός, οῦ, ὸa Thessalian.
λέγω, λέξω, ἔλεξα(cf. λόγος)say, speak, tell. state. report.
μετάprep.: with gen., with, in company with; with acc., behind, after.
ξένος, ον, ὁstranger, “guest friend,” guest, host.
ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε (cf. ὦδε)pron., this, the following.
οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο (cf. οὕτως)pron., this.
τέconj., and (enclitic and postpositive); τε . . . καί, both . . . and.


1. αὗται αἱ οἰκίαι θύρᾱς ἔχουσι.
2. οὗτοι οἱ στρατιῶται ἔπαιον τὸν ξένον.
3. Ἀρίστιππος δὲ ὁ Θετταλὸς ξένος ἦν αὐτῷ.
4. μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον Κλέαρχος αὐτὸς ἔλεξε τάδε.
5. καὶ ἤθροιζον τοὺς πελταστὰς οὕτως οὗτοι.
6. τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα1 βουλεύουσι.
7. καὶ κελεύει αὐτοὺς λέγειν ταῦτα.
8. αὕτη ἡ ἐπιβουλὴ οὐκ ἦν φανερά.
9. οὗτος δὲ ὁ αὐτὸς κελεύει ἐκείνους ἁρπάζειν τὴν χώρᾱν.
10. ταῦτα ἔλεξε Κλέαρχος· οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται, οἵ τε2 αὐτοῦ3 ἐκείνου καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι, ἐκέλευον αὐτὸν ἄγειν τὴν στρατιάν.

NOTES.—1 τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα, these same (plans), a cognate accusative (833). —2 οἵ τε, both the (soldiers). The proclitic οἱ receives an accent from the following enclitic.—3 Agrees with ἐκείνου, and = ipsīus.

164. He hoodwinks the King.

οὕτως οὖν ἐπὶ Μίλητον τὴν στρατιὰν ἤθροιζεν ὁ Κῦρος. πρὸς δὲ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἀγγέλους ἔπεμψε καὶ ἔλεξε τάδε· “ἐπιθῡμῶ, ὦ Ἀρταξέρξη, καὶ (also) τῆς Ἰωνίᾱς σατραπεύειν, Τισσαφέρνην δ᾿ ἐκ τῆς χώρᾱς ἐκβάλλειν.” καὶ ἡ μήτηρ συμπράττει αὐτῷ ταῦτα. ὥστε οὐχ ὑποπτεύει ὁ Ἀρταξέρξης τὴν τοῦ Κύρου ἐπιβουλήν· ἀπέπεμπε γὰρ αὐτῷ τοὺς δασμοὺς ἐκεῖνος.

NOTES.—3. ἐπιθῡμῶ: by contraction for ἐπιθῡμέω, I desire.— Ἰωνίᾱς: the genitive follows verbs signifying to rule (847).—5. συμ-πράττει: does this with him, i. e. cooperates with him in this (865).