(1) Marcus, a Roman who raised his family from obscurity to the highest rank among the Roman nobles. He was born in B.C. 163. His father, notwithstanding his patrician descent, had been obliged, through poverty, to carry on the trade of a coal merchant, and left his son a very slender patrimony. The latter had thought at first of carrying on the trade of a money-lender; but he finally resolved to devote himself to the study of eloquence, with the hope of rising to the honors of the State. He likewise served in the army, where he appears to have gained some distinction. He was curule aedile in 123, and obtained the consulship in 115, when he carried on war with success against several of the Alpine tribes. In 112 he was sent at the head of an embassy to Iugurtha; and in 111 he accompanied the consul, L. Calpurnius Bestia, as one of his legates, in the war against Iugurtha. The Numidian king bestowed large sums of money upon both Bestia and Scaurus, in consequence of which the consul granted the king most favourable terms of peace. This disgraceful transaction excited the greatest indignation at Rome; and C. Mamilius, the tribune of the people (110) brought forward a bill by which an inquiry was to be instituted against all those who had received bribes from Iugurtha. Although Scaurus had been one of the most guilty, such was his influence in the State that he contrived to be appointed one of the three quaesitores who were elected under the bill for the purpose of prosecuting the criminals. But, though he thus secured himself, he was unable to save any of his accomplices. Bestia and many others were condemned. In 109, Scaurus was censor with M. Livius Drusus. In his consulship he restored the Milvian Bridge, and constructed the Aemilian Way, which ran by Pisae and Luna as [p. 1423] far as Dertona. In 107 he was elected consul a second time, in place of L. Cassius Longinus, who had fallen in battle against the Tigurini. In the struggles between the aristocratical and popular parties, Scaurus was always a warm supporter of the former. He was several times accused of different offences, chiefly by his private enemies; but such was his influence in the State, that he was always acquitted. He died about B.C. 89. By his wife Caecilia Scaurus had three children, two sons mentioned below, and a daughter Aemilia, first married to M'. Glabrio, and next to Cn. Pompey, subsequently the triumvir.
(2) Marcus, eldest son of the preceding, and stepson of the dictator Sulla , whom his mother Caecilia married after the death of his father. In the Third Mithridatic War he served under Pompey as quaestor. The latter sent him to Damascus with an army, and from thence he marched into Iudaea, to settle the disputes between the brothers Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. Scaurus was left by Pompey in the command of Syria with two legions. During his government of Syria he made a predatory incursion into Arabia Petraea, but withdrew on the payment of 300 talents by Aretas, the king of the country. He was curule aedile in B.C. 58, when he celebrated the public games with extraordinary splendour. The temporary theatre which he built accommodated 80,000 spectators, and was adorned in the most magnificent manner. Three hundred and sixty pillars decorated the stage, arranged in three stories, of which the lowest was made of white marble, the middle one of glass, and the highest of gilt wood. The combats of wild beasts were equally astonishing. One hundred and fifty panthers were exhibited in the circus, and five crocodiles and a hippopotamus were seen for the first time at Rome. In the year 56 he was praetor, and in the following year governed the province of Sardinia, which he plundered without mercy. On his return to Rome he was accused of the crime of repetundae. He was defended by Cicero, Hortensius, and others, and was acquitted, notwithstanding his guilt. He was accused again in 52, under Pompey's new law against bribery, and was condemned. He married Mucia, who had been previously the wife of Pompey, and by her he had one son.
(3) Younger son of No. 1, fought under the proconsul, Q. Catulus, against the Cimbri at the Athesis, and having fled from the field, was indignantly commanded by his father not to come into his presence; whereupon the youth put an end to his life.
(4) Marcus, son of No. 2, and Mucia, the former wife of Pompey the triumvir, and consequently the half-brother of Sex. Pompey. He accompanied the latter into Asia, after the defeat of his fleet in Sicily, but betrayed him into the hands of the generals of M. Antonius, in 35. After the battle of Actium, he fell into the power of Octavian, and escaped death, to which he had been sentenced, only through the intercession of his mother, Mucia.
(5) Mamercus, son of No. 5, was a distinguished orator and poet, but of a dissolute character. He was a member of the Senate at the time of the accession of Tiberius, A.D. 14, when he offended that suspicious emperor by some remarks which he made in the Senate. Being accused of maiestas in 34, he put an end to his own life.