(τὰ Ἱεροσόλυμα). Jerusalem, a celebrated city of Palestine, the capital of Iudaea. The history of Abraham mentions that Melchizedek, king of Salem, came forth to meet him when he returned from the slaughter of the kings (Gen. xiv. 18), and it has been generally supposed that this Salem was the original of the city which we are now considering. It is more certain, however, that when the Israelites entered Canaan they found the place in the occupation of the Jebusites, a tribe descended from Jebus, a son of Canaan, and the city then bore the name of Jebus or Jebusi (Josh. xv. 63, xviii. 28). The lower city was taken and burned by the children of Judah (Jud. i. 8) after the death of Joshua; but the Jebusites had so strongly fortified themselves in the upper city, on Mount Zion, that they maintained themselves in possession of it till the time of David. That monarch, after his seven years' rule over Judah in Hebron, became king of all Israel, on which he expelled the Jebusites from Mount Zion, and established here the metropolis of his kingdom. The city now took the name of Jerusalem (Yerushalam), a term which denotes the abode of peace, or (according to another derivation) the people of peace (Gesenius, Hebr. Lex. s. v.). Yakt, the Mohammedan geographer, gives other forms of the name (Urshallum, Urishalum, and Shallam). The Septuagint version gives Ἰερουσαλήμ as the form of the name, while by the Greek and Roman writers the place is called Hierosolyma. At present this city is known throughout Western Asia by the Arabic name of El-Kuds, which signifies The Holy. See Cadytis.
Jerusalem was built on several hills, the largest of which was Mount Sion, which formed the southern part of the city. A valley towards the north separated this from Acra, the second or lower city, on the east of which was Mount Moriah, the site of the Temple of Solomon. Northeast of Mount Moriah was the Mount of Olives, on the south was the valley of Hinnom, and at the north Mount Calvary, the scene of Christ's crucifixion.
Passing over the earlier history of this celebrated city, so fully detailed in the Scriptures, we come to the memorable period of its capture and destruction by Titus. The date of this event was the 8th of September, A.D. 70. During this siege and capture 1,100,000 persons are said to have perished, and 97,000 to have been made prisoners and afterwards either sold for slaves or exposed to the fury of wild beasts. In fact, the population, not only of Jerusalem, but that of the adjacent districts many who had taken refuge in the city, more who had assembled for the feast of unleavened bread had been shut up by the sudden formation of the siege. The ardent zeal of the Jewish nation for their holy city and temple soon caused both to be again rebuilt; but fresh commotions compelled the emperor Hadrian to interfere and ordain that no Jew should remain in, or even approach near Jerusalem, on pain of death. On the ruins of their temple the same emperor caused a temple in honour of Iupiter Capitolinus to be erected, and the image of a hog to be cut in stone over the gate leading to Bethlehem, as a standing insult to the religious feelings of this unfortunate people. The name of the city was also changed to Aelia Capitolina, the first part of the name alluding to the family of the Roman emperor. The more peaceful Christians were permitted, however, to establish themselves within the walls, and Aelia became the seat of a flourishing church and bishopric. This latter name became afterwards the ordinary name of the city, and Jerusalem became nearly obsolete. Upon the ascension to the throne, however, of the Christian emperors the earlier name revived. Jerusalem, thus restored, was much less in compass than the ancient city, Mount Sion and Bezetha being excluded.
The following description of Jerusalem, as it appeared just before the siege by Titus, is taken, with a few alterations, from Dean Milman (History of the Jews, vol. iii. pp. 17 foll.): Jerusalem, at this period, was fortified by three walls, in all those parts where it was not surrounded by abrupt and impassable ravines; there it had but one. Not that these walls stood one within the other, each in a narrower circle running round the whole city; but each of the inner walls defended one of the several quarters into which [p. 817]
the city was divided, or, it might be almost said, one of the separate cities. Since the days in which David had built his capital on the rugged heights of Sion, great alterations had taken place at Jerusalem. That eminence was still occupied by the upper city; but, in addition, first the hill of Moriah was taken in, on which the temple stood, then Acra, which was originally, although a part of the same ridge, separated by a deep chasm from Moriah. This chasm was almost entirely filled up, and the top of Acra levelled by the Asmonean princes, so that Acra and Moriah were united, though on the side of Acra the temple presented a formidable front, connected by several bridges or causeways with the lower city. To the south the height of Sion, the upper city, was separated from [figure in text: View of Jerusalem.] the lower by a ravine, which ran right through Jerusalem, called the Tyropoeon, or the valley of the cheesemongers; at the edge of this ravine, on both sides, the streets suddenly broke off, though the walls in some places must have crossed it, and it was bridged in more than one place. To the north extended a considerable suburb called Bezetha, or the new city. The first or outer wall encompassed Bezetha. Agrippa the First had intended to make this wall of extraordinary strength; but he had desisted from the work on the interference of the Romans, who seem to have foreseen that this refractory city would hereafter force them to take up arms against it. Had this wall been built according to the plan of Agrippa, the city, in the opinion of Iosephus, would have been impregnable. This wall began at the tower of Hippicus, which stood, it seems, on a point at the extreme corner of Mount Sion. It must have crossed the western mouth of the valley of Tyropoeon, and run directly north to the tower of Psephina. The wall then bore towards the monument of Helena, ran by the royal caverns of the Fuller's Monument, and was carried into the valley of Kedron or Jehoshaphat, where it joined the old or inner wall under the temple. The wall, however it fell short of Agrippa's design, was of considerable strength. The stones were 35 feet long, so solid as not easily to be shaken by battering engines, or undermined. The wall was 17 1/2 feet broad. It had only been carried to the same height by Agrippa, but it had been hastily run up by the Jews to 35 feet; on its top stood battlements 3 1/2 feet high, and pinuacles 5 3/4; so the whole was nearly 45 feet high. The second wall began at a gate in the old or inner one, called Gennath, the gate of the gardens; it intersected the lower city, and, having struck northward for some distance, turned to the east and joined the northwest corner of the tower of Antonia. The Antonia stood at the northwest corner of the temple, and was separated from Bezetha by a deep ditch, which probably protected the whole northern front of the temple as well as of the Antonia. The old or inner wall was that of Sion. Starting from the southwestern porticos of the temple to which it was united, it ran along the ridge of the Tyropoeon, passed first the Xystus, then the council-house, and abutted on the tower [p. 818]
Hippicus, whence the northern wall sprang. The old wall then ran southward through Bethso to the gate of the Essenes, all along the ridge of the valley of Hinnom, above the pool of Siloam, then eastward again to the pool of Solomon, so on through Opha, probably a deep glen. It then joined the eastern portico of the temple. Thus there were, it might seem, four distinct towns, each requiring a separate siege. The capture of the first wall only opened Bezetha; the fortifications of the northern part of the temple, the Antonia, and the second wall still defended the other quarters. The second wall forced, only a part of the lower city was won; the strong rock-built citadel of Antonia and the temple on one hand, and Sion on the other, were not the least weakened. The whole circuit of these walls was guarded with towers, built of the same solid masonry with the rest of the walls. They were 35 feet broad and 35 high; but above this height were lofty chambers, and above those again upper rooms and large tanks to receive the rain-water. Broad flights of steps led up to them. Ninety of these towers stood in the first wall, 14 in the second, and 60 in the third. The intervals between the towers were about 350 feet. The whole circuit of the city, according to Iosephus, was 33 stadia, rather more than 4 miles. The most magnificent of all these towers was that of Psephina, opposite to which Titus encamped. It was 122 1/2 feet high, and commanded a noble view of the whole country of Iudea, to the border of Arabia, and to the sea. It was an octagon. Answering to [figure in text: View of the Interior of Jerusalem.] this was the tower Hippicus, and following the old wall stood those of Phasalus and Mariamn, built by Herod, and named after his wife and his brother and friend. These were stupendous, even as works of Hippicus was square, 43 3/4 feet each way. The whole height of the tower was 140 feet; the tower itself 52 1/2, a deep tank or reservoir 35, two stories of chambers 43 3/4, battlements and pinnacles 8 3/4. Phasalus was a solid square of 70 feet. It was surrounded by a portico 17 1/2 feet high, defended by breastworks and bulwarks, and above the portico was another tower, divided into lofty chambers and baths. It was more richly ornamented than the rest with battlements and pinnacles, so that its whole height was above 167 feet. It looked from a distance like the tall pharos of Alexandria. Mariamn, though not equal in elevation, was more luxuriously fitted up; it was built of solid wall 35 feet high, and of the same width; on the whole, with the upper chambers, it was about 76 3/4 feet high. These lofty towers appeared still higher from their situation. They were built on the old wall, which ran along the steep brow of Sion. Their masonry was perfect. They were built of white marble, cut in blocks 35 feet long, 17 1/2 wide, 8 1/4 high, so fitted that the towers seemed hewn out of the solid quarry. High above the whole city rose the temple, uniting the commanding strength of a citadel with the splendour of a sacred edifice. According to Iosephus, the esplanade on which it stood had been considerably enlarged by the accumulation of fresh soil since the days of Solomon, particularly on the north side. It now covered a square of a furlong on each side. Solomon had faced the precipitous sides of the rock on the east, and perhaps the south, with huge blocks of stone; the other sides likewise had been built up with perpendicular walls to an equal height. These walls in no part were lower than 300 cubits (525 feet), but their whole height was not seen excepting on the eastern and perhaps the southern sides, as the earth was heaped up to the level of the streets of the city. Some of the stones employed in this work were 70 feet square. On this gigantic foundation ran, on each front, a strong and lofty wall without, within a spacious double portico or cloister 52 1/2 feet broad, supported by 162 columns, which upheld a ceiling of cedar, of the most exquisite workmanship. The pillars were entire blocks hewn out of solid marble, of dazzling [p. 819]
whiteness, 43 1/4 feet high. On the south side the portico or cloister was triple. This quadrangle had but one gate to the east, one to the north, two to the south, four to the west; one of these led to the palace, one to the city, one at the corner to the Antonia, one down towards the gardens. The open courts were paved with various inlaid marbles. Between this outer court of the Gentiles and the second court of the Israelites ran rails of stone, but of beautiful workmanship, rather more than 5 feet high. Along these, at regular intervals, stood pillars, with inscriptions in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, warning all strangers, and Jews who were unclean, from entering into the Holy Court beyond. An ascent of fourteen steps led to a terrace 17 1/2 feet wide, beyond which rose the wall of the inner court. This wall appeared on the outside 70 feet, on the inside 43 3/4; for, besides the ascent of 14 steps to the terrace, there were 5 more up to the gates. The inner court had no gate or opening to the west, but four on the north, and four on the south, two to the east, one of which was for the women, for whom a portion of the inner court was set apart, and beyond which they might not advance; to this they had access likewise by one of the northern and one of the southern gates, which were set apart for their use. Around this court ran another splendid range of porticos or cloisters; the columns were quite equal in beauty and workmanship, though not in size, to those of the outer portico. Nine of these gates, or, rather, gateway towers, were richly adorned with gold and silver, on the doors, the door-posts, and the lintels. The doors of each of the nine gates were 52 1/2 feet high, and half that breadth. Within, the gateways were 52 1/2 feet wide and deep, with rooms on each side, so that the whole looked like lofty towers; the height from the base to the summit was 70 feet. Each gateway had two lofty pillars 21 feet in circumference. But what excited the greatest admiration was the tenth, usually called the Beautiful, gate of the temple. It was of Corinthian brass of the finest workmanship. The height of the Beautiful Gate was 87 1/2, its doors 70 feet. Within this quadrangle there was a further [figure in text: Golden Gate of Jerusalem.] separation, a low wall which divided the priests from the Israelites; near this stood the great brazen altar. Beyond, the temple itself reared its glittering front. The porch or propylon, according to the design of the last, or Herod's temple, extended to a much greater width than the temple itself. In addition to the former width of 105 feet, it had two wings of 35 feet each, making in the whole 175 feet. The great gate of this last quadrangle, to which there was an ascent of twelve steps, was called that of Nicanor. The gateway tower was 132 1/2 feet high, 43 1/2 wide; it had no doors, but the front was covered with gold, and through its spacious arch was seen the Golden Gate of the temple, glittering with the same precious metal, with large plates of which it was sheeted all over. Above this gate hung the celebrated golden vine. This extraordinary piece of workmanship had bunches, according to Iosephus, as large as a man. The Rabbins add that, like a true natural vine, it grew greater and greater; men would be offeringsome, gold to make a leaf; some, a grape; some, a bunch; and these were hung up upon it; and so it was increasing continually. The temple itself, excepting in the extension of the wings of the propylon, was probably the same in its dimensions and distribution with that of Solomon. Its roof had been set all over, on the outside, with sharp golden spikes, to prevent the birds from settling on and defiling the roof, and the gates were still sheeted with plates of the same splendid metal. At a [p. 820]
distance the whole temple looked literally like a mountain of snow, fretted with goldn pinnacles.
See Besant and Palmer, Jerusalem (2d ed. London, 1888); and Warren and Conder's Jerusalem, with a fine collection of plates (1884). The work of Le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems, gives a valuable rsum of the Arabic authorities regarding the city. On the temple, see De Vog, Le Temple de Jrusalem.