| [p. 258]may not be aggravated by useless applications, and splendid and creditable prognostics are made by knowing where, how, and when every case will terminate, and whether it will be converted into a curable or an incurable disease. When then, from birth, or during one's youth, this dislocation backward occurs, and is not reduced, whether it be connected with violence or disease (for many such dislocations occur in diseases, but the nature of the diseases in which dislocations take place, will be described afterward); if, then, the dislocated limb be not reduced, the bone of the thigh becomes shortened, the whole limb is impaired, is arrested in its growth, and loses its flesh from want of use; the articulation at the ham is also impaired, for the nerves (ligaments?) become stretched, from cases formerly stated, wherefore those who have this dislocation, cannot make extension at the knee-joint. In a word, all parts of the body which were made for active use, if moderately used and exercised at the labor to which they are habituated, become healthy, increase in bulk, and bear their age well, but when not used, and when left without exercise, they become diseased, their growth is arrested, and they soon become old. Among these parts the joints and nerves (ligaments?), if not used, are not the least liable to be so affected; they are impaired, then, for the reasons we have stated, more in this variety of dislocation than in the others, for the whole limb is wasted, both in its bones and in its fleshy parts. Such persons, then, when they attain their full growth, keep the limb raised and flexed, rest the weight of the body on the other leg, and support themselves with a staff, some with one, and others with two.
In dislocations of the head of the thigh-bone forward (they are of rare occurrence), the patients cannot extend the leg completely, but least of all can they bend it at the groin; they are pained, also, if forced to bend the limb at the ham. The length of the leg, if compared at the heel, is the same as that of the other; but the extremity of the foot inclines less to project forward. But the whole limb has its natural direction, and inclines neither to this side nor to that. These cases are particularly attended with severe pain, and they are more apt to be accompanied with retention of urine at first than any of the other